Tafsir of Surah al-Fatihah: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

Sheikh Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shinqitee wrote the following explanation in his book of tafsir, Adhwaa’ al-Bayaan, regarding surah al-Fatihah. The entire theme of al-Shinqitee’s tafsir was to specifically focus on explaining the Qur’an by means of the Qur’an, and his explanation of surah al-Fatihah here is no different. Due to this focused approach, this explanation contains some benefits not frequently emphasized in other works of tafsir, and acts as a valuable addition and complement to the broader tafsir literature.

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

سورة الفاتحة

In the name of Allah, al-Rahman al-Raheem

Surah al-Fatihah

قوله تعالى : ( الحمد لله رب العالمين ) . لم يذكر لحمده هنا ظرفا مكانيا ولا زمانيا ، وذكر في سورة الروم أن من ظروفه المكانية السماوات والأرض في قوله : ( وله الحمد في السماوات والأرض ) وذكر في سورة القصص أن من ظروفه الزمانية : الدنيا والآخرة في قوله : ( وهو الله لا إله إلا هو له الحمد في الأولى والآخرة ) ، وقال في أول سورة سبأ : ( وله الحمد في الآخرة وهو الحكيم الخبير ) ، والألف واللام في ( الحمد ) لاستغراق جميع المحامد . وهو ثناء أثنى به تعالى على نفسه وفي ضمنه أمر عباده أن يثنوا عليه به . ـ

○ Allah’s statement:

الْحَمْدُ لِلَّـهِ رَ‌بِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

[All] praise is due to Allah, Lord of the worlds [1:1]

Here there are no mention of accompanying circumstances of place or time to go with His praise, but in surah al-Room He mentioned that the heavens and the earth are among the accompanying circumstances of place for it. This was in His statement:

وَلَهُ الْحَمْدُ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ

And to Him is the praise in the heavens and the earth [30:18]

And in surah al-Qasas He mentioned that this worldly life and the hereafter are among the accompanying circumstances of time for it. This was in His statement:

وَهُوَ اللَّـهُ لَا إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ۖ لَهُ الْحَمْدُ فِي الْأُولَىٰ وَالْآخِرَ‌ةِ

And He is Allah – there is no deity worthy of worship except Him. To Him is the praise in the first and the last [28:70]

And in the beginning of surah Saba’ He said:

وَلَهُ الْحَمْدُ فِي الْآخِرَ‌ةِ ۚ وَهُوَ الْحَكِيمُ الْخَبِيرُ‌

To Him is the praise in the Hereafter, and He is the Most Wise, the Intimately Acquainted [34:1]

And the definite article of alif and lam in al-Hamd [the praise] causes it to encompass all praises, and that is commendation which He has lauded upon Himself, and this entails Him commanding His slaves to laud Him with with that phrase as well.

وقوله تعالى : ( رب العالمين ) لم يبين هنا ما العالمون ، وبين ذلك في موضع آخر بقوله : ( قال فرعون وما رب العالمين قال رب السماوات والأرض وما بينهما ) [ 26 \ 23 ، 24 ] . ـ

○ And His statement:

رَ‌بِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

Lord of al-‘aalameen [1:1]

Allah did not explain what al-‘aalamoon is here, but He clarified that matter in another place by means of His statement:

قَالَ فِرْ‌عَوْنُ وَمَا رَ‌بُّ الْعَالَمِينَ * قَالَ رَ‌بُّ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْ‌ضِ وَمَا بَيْنَهُمَا

Fir’awn said, “and what is the Lord of al-‘aalameen?” * Moosaa said, “The Lord of the heavens and the earth and all that is between them” [26:23-24]

قال بعض العلماء : اشتقاق العالم من العلامة ; لأن وجود العالم علامة لا شك فيها على وجود خالقه متصفا بصفات الكمال والجلال ، قال تعالى : ( إن في خلق السماوات والأرض واختلاف الليل والنهار لآيات لأولي الألباب ) [ 3 \ 190 ] ، والآية في اللغة : العلامة . ـ

Some of the scholars say that al-‘aalam [the singular form of al-‘aalamoon; literally “the world”] is derived from al-‘alaamah [sign], because the existence of the world is a sign – about which there is no doubt – of the existence of a creator for it who is characterized with attributes of perfection and majesty. Allah said:

إِنَّ فِي خَلْقِ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْ‌ضِ وَاخْتِلَافِ اللَّيْلِ وَالنَّهَارِ‌ لَآيَاتٍ لِّأُولِي الْأَلْبَابِ

Indeed, in the creation of the heavens and the earth and the alternation of the night and the day are  ayaat for those of understanding. [3:190]

And the linguistic meaning of ayah [the singular form of ayaat] is ‘alaamah [signs].

قوله تعالى : ( الرحمن الرحيم ) ـ

○ Allah’s statement:

الرَّ‌حْمَـٰنِ الرَّ‌حِيمِ

al-Rahman al-Raheem [1:2]

ما وصفان لله تعالى ، واسمان من أسمائه الحسنى ، مشتقان من الرحمة على وجه المبالغة ، والرحمن أشد مبالغة من الرحيم ; لأن الرحمن هو ذو الرحمة الشاملة لجميع الخلائق في الدنيا ، وللمؤمنين في الآخرة ، والرحيم ذو الرحمة للمؤمنين يوم القيامة . وعلى هذا أكثر العلماء . وفي كلام ابن جرير ما يفهم منه حكاية الاتفاق على هذا . وفي تفسير بعض السلف ما يدل عليه ، كما قاله ابن كثير ، ويدل له الأثر المروي عن عيسى كما ذكره ابن كثير وغيره ، إنه قال عليه وعلى نبينا الصلاة والسلام : الرحمن رحمن الدنيا والآخرة ، والرحيم رحيم [ ص: 6 ] الآخرة . وقد أشار تعالى إلى هذا الذي ذكرنا حيث قال : ( ثم استوى على العرش الرحمن ) ، وقال : ( الرحمن على العرش استوى ) ، فذكر الاستواء باسمه الرحمن ليعم جميع خلقه برحمته ، قاله ابن كثير . ومثله قوله تعالى : ( أولم يروا إلى الطير فوقهم صافات ويقبضن ما يمسكهن إلا الرحمن ) أي : ومن رحمانيته : لطفه بالطير ، وإمساكه إياها صافات وقابضات في جو السماء . ومن أظهر الأدلة في ذلك قوله تعالى : ( الرحمن علم القرآن ) إلى قوله : ( فبأي آلاء ربكما تكذبان ) ، وقال : ( وكان بالمؤمنين رحيما ) فخصهم باسمه الرحيم . فإن قيل : كيف يمكن الجمع بين ما قررتم ، وبين ما جاء في الدعاء المأثور من قوله صلى الله عليه وسلم : ” رحمان الدنيا والآخرة ورحيمهما ” . فالظاهر في الجواب ، والله أعلم ، أن الرحيم خاص بالمؤمنين كما ذكرنا ، لكنه لا يختص بهم في الآخرة ؛ بل يشمل رحمتهم في الدنيا أيضا ، فيكون معنى : ” رحيمهما ” رحمته بالمؤمنين فيهما . ـ

There two attributes of Allah and two names out of His beautiful names are both derived from al-Rahmah [mercy] in the emphatic form. And al-Rahman is a stronger emphasis than al-Raheem because al-Rahman is the possessor of mercy which encompasses the entirety of the creation in the dunya and the believers in the hereafter, while al-Raheem is the possessor of mercy towards the believers of the Day of Judgement. Most of the scholars hold this position, and a reporting of agreement upon this position is understood from the discussion of Ibn Jareer (al-Tabari) on this topic. And in the tafsir of some of the salaf there is evidence of that, as Ibn Kathir said. And there is a saying attributed to ‘Eesaa which points to that, as Ibn Kathir and others have mentioned, that he said (may Allah bestow His peace blessings upon him and upon our prophet), “al-Rahman is rahman in the dunya and the hereafter, and al-Raheem is raheem in the hereafter.” And Allah gave indication of that which we have mentioned when He said:

ثُمَّ اسْتَوَىٰ عَلَى الْعَرْ‌شِ ۚ الرَّ‌حْمَـٰنُ

And then established Himself above the Throne – al-Rahman [25:59]

And He said:

الرَّحْمَٰنُ عَلَى الْعَرْشِ اسْتَوَىٰ

al-Rahman above the Throne established. [20:5]

So He mentioned al-istiwaa with His name al-Rahman in order to encompass all of His creation with His mercy – this what ibn Kathir said. And the likes of this in His statement:

أَوَلَمْ يَرَ‌وْا إِلَى الطَّيْرِ‌ فَوْقَهُمْ صَافَّاتٍ وَيَقْبِضْنَ ۚ مَا يُمْسِكُهُنَّ إِلَّا الرَّ‌حْمَـٰنُ

Do they not see the birds above them with wings outspread and [sometimes] folded in? None holds them [aloft] except al-Rahman [67:19]

– meaning: and from His mercy is His kindness to the birds and His holding them with wings outspread and folded in the middle of the sky.

And one of the clearest of proofs in this regard is His statement:

الرَّ‌حْمَـٰنُ * عَلَّمَ الْقُرْ‌آنَ

al-Rahman * He taught the Qur’an [55:1-2]

until His statement:

فَبِأَيِّ آلَاءِ رَ‌بِّكُمَا تُكَذِّبَانِ

So which of the favors of your Lord would you deny? [55:13]

And His statement:

وَكَانَ بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ رَ‌حِيمًا

And to the believers, He is ever Raheem. [33:43]

So He specified the believers by using His name al-Raheem. So one may then ask, “How can one reconcile between what you have said and what comes in the narrated supplication of the Prophet (ﷺ), ‘Rahman in the dunya and the hereafter, and Raheem in them both’?” What is apparent as a response – and Allah knows best – is that al-Raheem is specific to the believers as we have mentioned, however it is not limited to the hereafter for them; rather, it includes mercy towards them in the dunya also. So the meaning of “Raheem in them both” is his mercy towards them believers in both realms.

والدليل على أنه رحيم بالمؤمنين في الدنيا أيضا : أن ذلك هو ظاهر قوله تعالى : ( هو الذي يصلي عليكم وملائكته ليخرجكم من الظلمات إلى النور وكان بالمؤمنين رحيما ) لأن صلاته عليهم وصلاة ملائكته وإخراجه إياهم من الظلمات إلى النور رحمة بهم في الدنيا . وإن كانت سبب الرحمة في الآخرة أيضا ، وكذلك قوله تعالى : ( لقد تاب الله على النبي والمهاجرين والأنصار الذين اتبعوه في ساعة العسرة من بعد ما كاد يزيغ قلوب فريق منهم ثم تاب عليهم إنه بهم رءوف رحيم ) [ 9 \ 117 ] فإنه جاء فيه بالباء المتعلقة بالرحم الجارة للضمير الواقع على النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم والمهاجرين والأنصار ، وتوبته عليهم رحمة في الدنيا وإن كانت سبب رحمة الآخرة أيضا . والعلم عند الله تعالى . ـ

And as for the proof that He is Raheem to the believers in the dunya also – that is what is apparent in His statement:

هُوَ الَّذِي يُصَلِّي عَلَيْكُمْ وَمَلَائِكَتُهُ لِيُخْرِ‌جَكُم مِّنَ الظُّلُمَاتِ إِلَى النُّورِ‌ ۚ وَكَانَ بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ رَ‌حِيمًا

It is He who confers blessing upon you, and His angels [ask Him to do so] that He may bring you out from darknesses into the light.And to the believers, He is ever Raheem. [33:43]

For His blessings upon them, supplications of blessings of His angels, and His bringing them out of the darknesses into the light is all a mercy to them in the dunya, even if it is also a cause of mercy in the hereafter. And similarly, His statement:

لَّقَد تَّابَ اللَّـهُ عَلَى النَّبِيِّ وَالْمُهَاجِرِ‌ينَ وَالْأَنصَارِ‌ الَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُوهُ فِي سَاعَةِ الْعُسْرَ‌ةِ مِن بَعْدِ مَا كَادَ يَزِيغُ قُلُوبُ فَرِ‌يقٍ مِّنْهُمْ ثُمَّ تَابَ عَلَيْهِمْ ۚ إِنَّهُ بِهِمْ رَ‌ءُوفٌ رَّ‌حِيمٌ

Allah has already forgiven the Prophet and the Muhajireen and the Ansar who followed him in the hour of difficulty after the hearts of a party of them had almost inclined [to doubt], and then He forgave them. Indeed, He was, to them, Kind and Raheem. [9:117]

For it came with a preposition of baa connecting to raheem which refers back to the Prophet (ﷺ), the Muhajireen and the Ansar, and His turning in forgiveness towards them was a mercy in the dunya even if it was also a cause of mercy for them in the hereafter. And the knowledge is which Allah.

وقوله : ( مالك يوم الدين ) ـ

○ Allah’s statement:

مَالِكِ يَوْمِ الدِّينِ

Sovereign of the Yawm al-Deen (Day of Recompense) [1:3]

لم يبينه هنا ، وبينه في قوله : ( وما أدراك ما يوم الدين ثم ما أدراك ما يوم الدين يوم لا تملك نفس لنفس شيئا ) الآية [ 82 \ 17 ، 18 ، 19 ] . ـ

And Allah does not explain this here, but He does clarify it in His statement:

وَمَا أَدْرَ‌اكَ مَا يَوْمُ الدِّينِ * ثُمَّ مَا أَدْرَ‌اكَ مَا يَوْمُ الدِّينِ * يَوْمَ لَا تَمْلِكُ نَفْسٌ لِّنَفْسٍ شَيْئًا ۖ وَالْأَمْرُ‌ يَوْمَئِذٍ لِّلَّـهِ

And what can make you know what is the Yawm al-Deen? * Then, what can make you know what is the Yawm al-Deen? * (It will be) the Day when no person shall have power (to do) anything for another; and the command, that Day, is [entirely] with Allah [82:17-19]

والمراد بالدين في الآية الجزاء . ومنه قوله تعالى : ( يومئذ يوفيهم الله دينهم الحق ) أي : جزاء أعمالهم بالعدل . ـ

And the intended meaning of al-deen in this ayah is “recompense”. And another usage of this word in this way is Allah’s statement:

يَوْمَئِذٍ يُوَفِّيهِمُ اللَّـهُ دِينَهُمُ الْحَقَّ

That Day, Allah will pay them in full their deserved recompense (deen) [24:25]

ـ [ ص: 7 ] قوله تعالى : ( إياك نعبد ) ـ

○ Allah’s statement:

إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ

It is You we worship [1:4]

أشار في هذه الآية الكريمة إلى تحقيق معنى لا إله إلا الله ; لأن معناها مركب من أمرين : نفي وإثبات . فالنفي : خلع جميع المعبودات غير الله تعالى في جميع أنواع العبادات . والإثبات : إفراد رب السماوات والأرض وحده بجميع أنواع العبادات على الوجه المشروع . وقد أشار إلى النفي من لا إله إلا الله بتقديم المعمول الذي هو ( إياك ) وقد تقرر في الأصول في مبحث دليل الخطاب الذي هو مفهوم المخالفة . وفي المعاني في مبحث القصر : أن تقديم المعمول من صيغ الحصر . وأشار إلى الإثبات منها بقوله : ( نعبد ) . ـ

In this noble ayah Allah points towards the true understanding of the meaning of Laa ilaaha illallaah [there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah], because its meaning is made up of two issues: negation and affirmation. So the negation is the disavowal of all forms of worship towards all objects of worship other than Allah. And the affirmation is singling out the Lord of the heavens and the earth alone for all forms of worship according to the way which they have been legislated.

And He has indicated the negation part of the phrase Laa ilaaha illallaah by fronting the object the verb – which is “It is You…” -, and it is definitively known in the foundations of the field of deriving the intended meanings from speech that this is an example of an implication of the opposite meaning [i.e. “You we worship and we worship none other”], and one of the communicated meanings in the field of abbreviated speech is that fronting the object of the verb can perform the function of limiting the meaning to that thing only.

And Allah pointed to affirmation therein with His words, “…we worship“.

وقد بين معناها المشار إليه هنا مفصلا في آيات أخر كقوله : ( ياأيها الناس اعبدوا ربكم الذي خلقكم ) الآية [ 2 \ 21 ] ، فصرح بالإثبات منها بقوله : ( اعبدوا ربكم ) ، وصرح بالنفي منها في آخر الآية الكريمة بقوله : ( فلا تجعلوا لله أندادا وأنتم تعلمون ) [ 2 \ 22 ] ، وكقوله : ( ولقد بعثنا في كل أمة رسولا أن اعبدوا الله واجتنبوا الطاغوت ) فصرح بالإثبات بقوله : ( أن اعبدوا الله ) وبالنفي بقوله : ( واجتنبوا الطاغوت ) ، وكقوله : ( فمن يكفر بالطاغوت ويؤمن بالله فقد استمسك بالعروة الوثقى ) [ 2 \ 256 ] فصرح بالنفي منها بقوله : ( فمن يكفر بالطاغوت ) ، وبالإثبات بقوله : ( ويؤمن بالله ) ، وكقوله : ( وإذ قال إبراهيم لأبيه وقومه إنني براء مما تعبدون إلا الذي فطرني ) [ 43 \ 26 ، 27 ] ، وكقوله : ( وما أرسلنا من قبلك من رسول إلا نوحي إليه أنه لا إله إلا أنا فاعبدون ) [ 21 \ 25 ] وقوله : ( واسأل من أرسلنا من قبلك من رسلنا أجعلنا من دون الرحمن آلهة يعبدون ) [ 43 \ 45 ] إلى غير ذلك من الآيات . ـ

And Allah has clarified the meaning which is being alluded to here in greater detail in other ayaat, such as His statement:

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اعْبُدُوا رَ‌بَّكُمُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُمْ وَالَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُونَ * الَّذِي جَعَلَ لَكُمُ الْأَرْ‌ضَ فِرَ‌اشًا وَالسَّمَاءَ بِنَاءً وَأَنزَلَ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مَاءً فَأَخْرَ‌جَ بِهِ مِنَ الثَّمَرَ‌اتِ رِ‌زْقًا لَّكُمْ ۖ فَلَا تَجْعَلُوا لِلَّـهِ أَندَادًا وَأَنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ

O mankind, worship your Lord, who created you and those before you, that you may become righteous –  * Who has made the earth a resting place for you, and the sky as a canopy, and sent down water (rain) from the sky and brought forth therewith fruits as a provision for you. Then do not set up rivals unto Allah (in worship) while you know (that He alone has the right to be worshipped).[2:21-22]

So He was clear in affirmation here by His words, “worship your Lord“, and He was clear in negation here in the end of the noble ayah with His words, “then do not set up rivals unto Allah while you know“.

And likewise in His statement:

وَلَقَدْ بَعَثْنَا فِي كُلِّ أُمَّةٍ رَّ‌سُولًا أَنِ اعْبُدُوا اللَّـهَ وَاجْتَنِبُوا الطَّاغُوتَ

And We certainly sent into every nation a messenger, [saying], “Worship Allah and avoid al-Taghut [whatever is worshiped other than Allah]” [16:36]

So He was clear in affirmation with His words, “worship Allah“, and in negation with His words, “and avoid al-Taghut“.

And similarly in His statement:

فَمَن يَكْفُرْ‌ بِالطَّاغُوتِ وَيُؤْمِن بِاللَّـهِ فَقَدِ اسْتَمْسَكَ بِالْعُرْ‌وَةِ الْوُثْقَىٰ

So whoever disbelieves in al-Taghut and believes in Allah has grasped the most trustworthy handhold [2:256]

So He was clear in negation therein with His words, “So whoever disbelieves in al-Taghut“, and in affirmation with His words, “and believes in Allah“.

And likewise His statement:

وَإِذْ قَالَ إِبْرَ‌اهِيمُ لِأَبِيهِ وَقَوْمِهِ إِنَّنِي بَرَ‌اءٌ مِّمَّا تَعْبُدُونَ * إِلَّا الَّذِي فَطَرَ‌نِي

And when Ibrahim said to his father and his people, “Indeed, I am disassociated from that which you worship * Except for He who created me” [43:26-27]

And similarly His statement:

وَمَا أَرْ‌سَلْنَا مِن قَبْلِكَ مِن رَّ‌سُولٍ إِلَّا نُوحِي إِلَيْهِ أَنَّهُ لَا إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا أَنَا فَاعْبُدُونِ

And We sent not before you any messenger except that We revealed to him that, “There is no deity except Me, so worship Me.” [21:25]

And His statement:

وَاسْأَلْ مَنْ أَرْ‌سَلْنَا مِن قَبْلِكَ مِن رُّ‌سُلِنَا أَجَعَلْنَا مِن دُونِ الرَّ‌حْمَـٰنِ آلِهَةً يُعْبَدُونَ

And ask those of Our messengers whom We sent before you; have We made any deities besides the Most Merciful to be worshiped? [43:45]

As well as other ayaat than these.

قوله تعالى : ( وإياك نستعين ) أي : لا نطلب العون إلا منك وحدك ; لأن الأمر كله بيدك وحدك لا يملك أحد منه معك مثقال ذرة . وإتيانه بقوله : ( وإياك نستعين ) بعد قوله : ( إياك نعبد ) فيه إشارة إلى أنه لا ينبغي أن يتوكل إلا على من يستحق العبادة ; لأن غيره ليس بيده الأمر . وهذا المعنى المشار إليه هنا جاء مبينا واضحا في آيات أخر كقوله : ( فاعبده وتوكل عليه ) الآية [ 11 \ 123 ] ، وقوله : ( فإن تولوا فقل حسبي الله لا إله إلا هو عليه توكلت ) الآية [ 9 \ 129 ] وقوله : ( رب المشرق والمغرب لا إله إلا هو فاتخذه وكيلا ) [ 73 \ 9 ] وقوله : [ ص: 8 ] ( قل هو الرحمن آمنا به وعليه توكلنا ) [ 67 \ 29 ] وإلى غير ذلك من الآيات . ـ

○ And Allah’s statement:

وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ

and You we ask for help [1:4]

– meaning: we do not seek aid except from You alone, for the entire affair is in Your hand alone – no one possesses an atom’s weight of sovereignty over the affair jointly with You. And Allah’s positioning of His statement, “and You we ask for help” after His statement, “It is You we worship” contains an indication that it is not befitting to place one’s reliance anywhere except upon the One who deserves to be worshiped, because the affair is not in the hands of any others. And this meaning which is being indicated here also comes clearly and plainly in other ayaat, such as His statement:

فَاعْبُدْهُ وَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَيْهِ

so worship Him and rely upon Him [11:23]

And His statement:

فَإِن تَوَلَّوْا فَقُلْ حَسْبِيَ اللَّـهُ لَا إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ۖ عَلَيْهِ تَوَكَّلْتُ ۖ وَهُوَ رَ‌بُّ الْعَرْ‌شِ الْعَظِيمِ

But if they turn away say, “Sufficient for me is Allah; there is no deity worthy of worship except Him. On Him I have relied, and He is the Lord of the Great Throne.” [9:129]

And His statement:

رَّ‌بُّ الْمَشْرِ‌قِ وَالْمَغْرِ‌بِ لَا إِلَـٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ فَاتَّخِذْهُ وَكِيلًا

[He is] the Lord of the East and the West; there is no deity worthy of worship except Him, so take Him as Disposer of [your] affairs. [73:9]

And His statement:

قُلْ هُوَ الرَّ‌حْمَـٰنُ آمَنَّا بِهِ وَعَلَيْهِ تَوَكَّلْنَا

Say, “He is the Most Merciful; we have believed in Him, and upon Him we have relied.” [67:29]

As well as other ayaat than these.

وقوله تعالى : ( صراط الذين أنعمت عليهم ) ـ

○ And Allah’s statement:

صِرَ‌اطَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ

The path of those upon whom You have bestowed favor [1:6]

لم يبين هنا من هؤلاء الذين أنعم عليهم . وبين ذلك في موضع آخر بقوله : ( فأولئك مع الذين أنعم الله عليهم من النبيين والصديقين والشهداء والصالحين وحسن أولئك رفيقا ) . ـ

Allah did not clarify here who are those upon whom He has bestowed favor, but He clarified this issue in another place with His statement:

فَأُولَـٰئِكَ مَعَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمَ اللَّـهُ عَلَيْهِم مِّنَ النَّبِيِّينَ وَالصِّدِّيقِينَ وَالشُّهَدَاءِ وَالصَّالِحِينَ ۚ وَحَسُنَ أُولَـٰئِكَ رَ‌فِيقًا

Those will be with the ones upon whom Allah has bestowed favor, of the prophets, the truthful ones, the martyrs and the righteous. And excellent are those as companions. [4:69]

تنبيهان . الأول : يؤخذ من هذه الآية الكريمة صحة إمامة أبي بكر الصديق رضي الله عنه ; لأنه داخل فيمن أمرنا الله في السبع المثاني والقرآن العظيم – أعني الفاتحة – بأن نسأله أن يهدينا صراطهم . فدل ذلك على أن صراطهم هو الصراط المستقيم . ـ

○ There are two important points here:

1) The validity of the leadership of Abu Bakr al-Siddeeq (may Allah be pleased with him) can be taken from this noble ayah, because he is included among those whom Allah commanded us in the seven oft-repeated verses and the magnificent Qur’an – meaning surah al-Fatihah – to ask Him that He would guide us to their path. So that indicates that their path is the Siraat al-Mustaqeem.

وذلك في قوله : ( اهدنا الصراط المستقيم صراط الذين أنعمت عليهم غير المغضوب عليهم ولا الضالين ) وقد بين الذين أنعم عليهم ، فعد منهم الصديقين . وقد بين صلى الله عليه وسلم أن أبا بكر – رضي الله عنه – من الصديقين ، فاتضح أنه داخل في الذين أنعم الله عليهم ، الذين أمرنا الله أن نسأله الهداية إلى صراطهم ، فلم يبق لبس في أن أبا بكر الصديق – رضي الله عنه – على الصراط المستقيم ، وأن إمامته حق . ـ

And this comes in His statement:

اهْدِنَا الصِّرَ‌اطَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ * صِرَ‌اطَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ غَيْرِ‌ الْمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا الضَّالِّينَ

Guide us to the straight path – The path of those upon whom You have bestowed favor, not of those who have evoked [Your] anger or of those who are astray. [1:6-7]

And Allah has clarified those upon whom He has bestowed favor, and numbered among them are the siddeeqoon. And the Prophet (ﷺ) has clarified that Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him) is one of the siddeeqoon, so it becomes clear that he is included among those upon whom Allah has bestowed favor – which are those whom Allah commanded us to ask Him for guidance to their path. So there is no question that Abu Bakr al-Siddeeq (may Allah be pleased with him) was upon the Siraat al-Mustaqeem, and that his role as leader of the Muslims was valid.

—–

[Here the author turns to the second important point and diverges into a lengthy discussion regarding a difference of opinion in grammar. This discussion has been omitted from the English translation, but can be read in Arabic here.]

—–

وقوله : ( غير المغضوب عليهم ولا الضالين ) قال جماهير من علماء التفسير : ( المغضوب عليهم ) اليهود ، و ” الضالون ” النصارى . وقد جاء الخبر بذلك عن رسول الله – صلى الله عليه وسلم – من حديث عدي بن حاتم رضي الله عنه . واليهود والنصارى وإن كانوا ضالين جميعا مغضوبا عليهم جميعا ، فإن الغضب إنما خص به اليهود ، وإن شاركهم النصارى فيه ; لأنهم يعرفون الحق وينكرونه ، ويأتون الباطل عمدا ، فكان الغضب أخص صفاتهم . والنصارى جهلة لا يعرفون الحق ، فكان الضلال أخص صفاتهم . ـ

○ And Allah’s statement:

غَيْرِ‌ الْمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا الضَّالِّينَ

not of those who have evoked anger nor of those who are astray [1:7]

And the majority of the scholars of tafsir have said that “those who have evoked anger” are the Jews, and “those who are astray” are the Christians. A report of that has come from the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) in the hadeeth of ‘Adee ibn Abee Haatim (may Allah be pleased with him). And although both the Jews and the Christians are both astray and have both evoked anger, the anger is only specified towards the Jews even though the Christians share in it with them because they know the truth and reject it, and intentionally come with falsehood. So anger is more specific to their description. And the Christians are ignorant, not knowing the truth, so the being astray is more specific to their description.

وعلى هذا فقد يبين أن ( المغضوب عليهم ) اليهود قوله تعالى فيهم : ( فباءوا بغضب على غضب ) الآية [ 2 \ 90 ] ، وقوله فيهم أيضا : ( هل أنبئكم بشر من ذلك مثوبة عند الله من لعنه الله وغضب عليه ) الآية [ 5 \ 60 ] ، وقوله : ( إن الذين اتخذوا العجل سينالهم غضب ) الآية [ 7 \ 152 ] ، وقد يبين أن ( الضالين ) النصارى قوله تعالى : ( ولا تتبعوا أهواء قوم قد ضلوا من قبل وأضلوا كثيرا وضلوا عن سواء السبيل ) [ 5 \ 77 ] . ـ

So according to this, then Allah has clarified that “those who have evoked anger” are the Jews with His statement about them:

فَبَاءُوا بِغَضَبٍ عَلَىٰ غَضَبٍ

so they have drawn on themselves wrath upon wrath [2:90]

And also His statement regarding them:

هَلْ أُنَبِّئُكُم بِشَرٍّ‌ مِّن ذَٰلِكَ مَثُوبَةً عِندَ اللَّـهِ ۚ مَن لَّعَنَهُ اللَّـهُ وَغَضِبَ عَلَيْهِ

Shall I inform you of something worse than that, regarding the recompense from Allah: those (Jews) who incurred the Curse of Allah and His Wrath [5:60]

until the end of the ayah. And His statement:

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ اتَّخَذُوا الْعِجْلَ سَيَنَالُهُمْ غَضَبٌ مِّن رَّ‌بِّهِمْ وَذِلَّةٌ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا ۚ وَكَذَٰلِكَ نَجْزِي الْمُفْتَرِ‌ينَ

Certainly, those who took the calf (for worship), wrath from their Lord and humiliation will come upon them in the life of this world. Thus do We recompense those who invent lies. [7:152]

And He has clarified that “those who are astray” are the Christians with His statement:

وَلَا تَتَّبِعُوا أَهْوَاءَ قَوْمٍ قَدْ ضَلُّوا مِن قَبْلُ وَأَضَلُّوا كَثِيرً‌ا وَضَلُّوا عَن سَوَاءِ السَّبِيلِ

and do not follow the vain desires of of a people who had gone astray before and misled many and have strayed from the Right Path. [5:77]

[Adhwaa’ al-Bayaan 1/6-10]

This translation is part of a series of sound explanations of surah al-Fatihah, which also includes:

For more information about each of these explanations, please see: Tafsir of Surah al-Fatihah Guide.

See also: The purpose of Allah’s creation: Imam al-Shinqitee

See also: The Three Categories of Tawheed according to the Qur’an: Imam al-Shinqitee

See also: Ibn Kathir’s brief remarks on the contents of Surah al-Fatihah

See also: The Seven Oft-Repeated Verses: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

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9 thoughts on “Tafsir of Surah al-Fatihah: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

  1. Pingback: Tafsir of Surah al-Fatihah: al-Tafsir al-Muyassar | Tulayhah

  2. Pingback: Tafsir of Surah al-Fatihah: Imam al-Sa’di | Tulayhah

  3. Pingback: The purpose of Allah’s creation: Imam al-Shinqitee | Tulayhah

    • This article is actually the third in a series of three complete explanations of surah al-Fatihah that we have published over the past three months. You can find the links to the other two (al-Tafsir al-Muyassar, and the explanation of sheikh ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Naasir al-Sa’di from his thematic tafsir) at the end of the article.

      We hoped that by providing a progression from introductory to intermediate to more complex material on this same surah it would accomplish a number of benefits – including:
      1) Helping our readers gain a better understanding this surah that is so central to our daily lives.
      2) Starting with the most essential material, and then reaffirming that and adding on to it with each successive article.
      3) Providing an example of some of the different styles and approaches of the various books of tafsir in presenting their explanations.
      4) Sharing a greater number of insights and benefits from this surah, because each explanation contains something or better emphasizes some points which they others do not.

      With that being said, we feel that this explanation from sheikh Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shinqitee is a great complement to other sound explanations because of his special emphasis on explaining the Qur’an by means of the Qur’an and his method of explicitly and copiously citing relevant ayaat to do so. This was the approach of his entire tafsir as its title [أضواء البيان في إيضاح القرآن بالقرآن] indicates. This specialized methodology that he adopted for this work allowed him to highlight and bring out many points that were not as present in other works of tafsir, but it also means that he generally restricted himself to explaining the Qur’an by the Qur’an, to the exclusion of drawing extensively on other sound methods of explanation. With this in mind, this explanation and his broader book should be understood as a valuable and specialized complement to the broader tafsir literature and consulted in conjunction with other reliable explanations. BaarakAllaahu feek.

  4. Pingback: The Seven Oft-Repeated Verses: Tafsir al-Shinqitee | Tulayhah

  5. Pingback: Ibn Kathir’s brief remarks on the contents of Surah al-Fatihah | Tulayhah

  6. Pingback: Only the Creator is Deserving of Worship: Tafsir al-Shinqitee | Tulayhah

  7. Pingback: The Names and Revelation of Surah al-Fatihah: Tafsir al-Baghawi | Tulayhah

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