A Clarification on the Annulment of One’s Deeds: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

Imam Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shinqitee mentions in the beginning of his tafsir of surah al-Maa’idah:

قوله تعالى : ومن يكفر بالإيمان فقد حبط عمله وهو في الآخرة من الخاسرين ، ظاهر هذه الآية الكريمة أن المرتد يحبط جميع عمله بردته من غير شرط زائد ، ولكنه أشار في موضع آخر إلى أن ذلك فيما إذا مات على الكفر ، وهو قوله : ومن يرتدد منكم عن دينه فيمت وهو كافر [ 2 \ 217 ] . ـ

Allah’s statement:

وَمَن يَكْفُرْ‌ بِالْإِيمَانِ فَقَدْ حَبِطَ عَمَلُهُ وَهُوَ فِي الْآخِرَ‌ةِ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِ‌ينَ

And whoever denies al-eemaan – his work has become worthless, and in the Hereafter he will be among the losers. [5:5]

What is apparent from this noble ayah is that the apostate will have all of his deeds made null and void by his apostasy, without there being any additional condition in play. However, Allah indicates elsewhere that this is in regards to if he dies in a state of disbelief, and that is His statement:

وَمَن يَرْ‌تَدِدْ مِنكُمْ عَن دِينِهِ فَيَمُتْ وَهُوَ كَافِرٌ‌ [ فَأُولَـٰئِكَ حَبِطَتْ أَعْمَالُهُمْ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَ‌ةِ ۖ وَأُولَـٰئِكَ أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ‌ ۖ هُمْ فِيهَا خَالِدُونَ ] ـ

And whoever of you apostates from his religion and dies while he is a disbeliever [- for those, their deeds have become worthless in this world and the Hereafter, and those are the companions of the Fire, they will abide therein eternally.] [2:217]

ومقتضى الأصول حمل هذا المطلق على هذا المقيد ، فيقيد إحباط العمل بالموت على الكفر ، وهو قول الشافعي ومن وافقه ، خلافا لمالك القائل بإحباط الردة العمل [ ص: 330 ] مطلقا ، والعلم عند الله تعالى . ـ

And what necessarily follows from the fundamental principles is to understand what is general according to what is specific. So Allah restricted the invalidation of deeds to the condition of dying in a state of disbelief. And this is the position of al-Shaafi’ee and those who agree with him, in contrast to Maalik who said that the invalidation of deeds by apostasy is unrestricted in nature. And the knowledge is with Allah.

[Adhwaa’ al-Bayaan 1/330-331]

See also: Questions and Answers on Tawbah from ibn Taymiyah

See also: Allah does not forgive shirk but He forgives what is less than that: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

See also: Three Conditions for the Acceptance of Deeds: Imam al-Shinqitee

See also: Do any sins remain after entering Islam?: Ibn Taymiyah

See also: Four Means of Attaining Allah’s Forgiveness: Imam al-Sa’di

See also: Allah invites the disbelievers to repent: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

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