Benefits from the story of Moosaa and al-Khadr: Imam al-Sa’di

In his book of thematic tafsir, Imam ‘Abd al-Rahman ibn Naasir al-Sa’di devoted a section to briefly providing some context for the story of Moosaa and al-Khadr which occurs in surah al-Kahf and he then brought a full 32 unique points of benefit extracted from those ayaat

قصة الخضر مع موسى ومحلها في أثناء قصص موسى

The story of al-Khadr with Moosaa and its placement among the stories of Moosaa

وذلك أن موسى صلى الله عليه وسلم قام ذات يوم في بني إسرائيل مقاما عظيما، علَّمهم فيه علوما جَمَّة، وأعجب الناس بكمال علمه، فقال له قائل: يا نبي الله، هل يوجد، أو هل تعلم في الأرض أحدا أعلم منك؟ فقال: لا، بناء على ما يعرفه، وترغيبا لهم في الأخذ عنه، فأخبره الله أن له عبدا في مجمع البحرين عنده علوم ليست عند موسى، وإلهامات خارجة عن الطور المعهود، فاشتاق موسى إلى لقياه رغبة في الازدياد من العلم، فطلب من الله أن يأذن له في ذلك، وأخبره بموضعه وتزودا حوتا وقيل له: إذا فقدت الحوت فهو في ذلك المكان، فذهب فوجده، وكان ما قص الله من نبأهما في الكهف: {وَإِذْ قَالَ مُوسَى لِفَتَاهُ لَا أَبْرَحُ حَتَّى أَبْلُغَ مَجْمَعَ الْبَحْرَيْنِ أَوْ أَمْضِيَ حُقُبًا} [الكهف: 60] إلى قوله : {ذَلِكَ تَأْوِيلُ مَا لَمْ تَسْطِعْ عَلَيْهِ صَبْرًا} [الكهف: 82] . ـ

Its placement is that one day Moosaa (ﷺ) stood among the Banu Israa’eel with a great standing, during which he taught them a great amount of knowledge and amazed the people with the completeness of his own knowledge. So one person said to him, “O prophet of Allah! Is there anyone – or do you know of anyone – on the earth who is more knowledgeable than you?” So he replied, “No,” based on what he was aware of, and out of wanting to encourage them to take knowledge from him. So Allah informed Moosaa that He had a slave at a place of the meeting of two oceans who had knowledge which Moosaa did not possess, as well as intuition beyond ordinary bounds. So Moosaa yearned to meet this person out of a desire to increase in knowledge, so he besought Allah to allow him to do so and Allah informed him of that person’s location and to take fish as provisions. So it was said to him, “when you cease to have the fish, then he is in that place.” So he went and he found him, and that event is that which Allah informed us of their news in surah al-Kahf:

وَإِذْ قَالَ مُوسَى لِفَتَاهُ لَا أَبْرَحُ حَتَّى أَبْلُغَ مَجْمَعَ الْبَحْرَيْنِ أَوْ أَمْضِيَ حُقُبًا

And (remember) when Moosaa said to his boy-servant: “I will not give up (traveling) until I reach the junction of the two seas or (until) I spend years and years in traveling.” [18:60]

until His statement:

ذَلِكَ تَأْوِيلُ مَا لَمْ تَسْطِعْ عَلَيْهِ صَبْرًا

That is the interpretation of those (things) over which you could not hold patience [18:82]

وفي هذه القصة من الفوائد والأحكام والقواعد شيء كثير ننبه على بعضه بعون الله، ونذكر المهمّ منه

And in this story there is something amazing in terms of benefits, legal rulings, foundational principles – some of which have been brought to our awareness by the aid of Allah, and we will mention the most important of them

فمنها: ما اشتملت عليه القصة من فضيلة العلم وشرفه، ومشروعية الرحلة في طلبه، وأنه أهم الأمور؛ فإن موسى رحل في طلبه مسافة طويلة، ولقي في ذلك النصب، وترك الإقامة عند بني إسرائيل لتعليمهم وإرشادهم، واختار السفر لزيادة العلم على ذلك. ـ

So from the benefits are: What the story contains regarding the excellence and honor of knowledge, as well as the lawfulness of traveling in search of it, and that it is the most important of issues. For Moosaa traveled a far distance in search of knowledge and he encountered exhaustion and fatigue in doing so; he left his position of teaching and guiding the Banu Israa’eel and chose to travel in order to increase in knowledge for the purpose of teaching and guiding them.

ومنها: البداءة في العلم بالأهم فالأهم، فإن زيادة علم الإنسان بنفسه أهم من ترك ذلك اشتغالا بالتعليم فقط، بل يتعلم ليعلم. ـ

And from them: The beginnings of knowledge is to start with the most important thing and then the next most important thing. For a person’s increasing in knowledge is in-and-of-itself more important than leaving off seeking knowledge out of being preoccupied with teaching only. Rather, one learns in order to teach.

ومنها: جواز أخذ الخادم في السفر والحضر لكفاية المؤن وطلب الراحة، كما فعل موسى صلى الله عليه وسلم. ـ

And from them: The permissibility of taking a servant-boy both during travel and while a resident for the purposes of having sufficient provisions and seeking diversion, as Moosaa (ﷺ) did.

ومنها: أن المسافر بطلب العلم أو الجهاد أو غيرهما من أسفار الطاعة، بل وكذلك غيرهما إذا اقتضت المصلحة الإخبار بمطلبه وأين مراده، فإنه أكمل من كتمه، فإن في إظهاره من فوائد الاستعداد له عدته، وإتيان الأمر على بصيرة، والإعلان بالترغيب لهذه العبادة الفاضلة لقول موسى: {وَإِذْ قَالَ مُوسَى لِفَتَاهُ لَا أَبْرَحُ حَتَّى أَبْلُغَ مَجْمَعَ الْبَحْرَيْنِ أَوْ أَمْضِيَ حُقُبًا} [الكهف: 60] ولما غزا صلى الله عليه وسلم تبوك أخبر الناس بمقصده، مع أنه كان في الغالب إذا أراد غزوة ورى بغيرها تبعا للمصلحة في الحالتين. ـ

And from them: That the traveler for the purpose of seeking knowledge or for jihaad or for some other type of travel related to obedience (to Allah) – rather even for other than these purposes – if there is benefit in announcing his objective and his intended destination then doing so is more complete than concealing it. For among the benefits of making this known is that his party can prepare for it, and they can approach the situation with clear understanding, and announcing it for the purpose of spurring them on towards this virtuous act of worship. This is according to the statement of Moosaa:

وَإِذْ قَالَ مُوسَى لِفَتَاهُ لَا أَبْرَحُ حَتَّى أَبْلُغَ مَجْمَعَ الْبَحْرَيْنِ أَوْ أَمْضِيَ حُقُبًا

And [mention] when Moses said to his servant, “I will not cease [traveling] until I reach the junction of the two seas or continue for a long period.” [18:60]

And when the Prophet (ﷺ) made the expedition to Tabook, he informed the people of his purpose, despite it being his predominant practice that when he wanted to made an expedition he would make it appear as if it were for another purpose, in each instance according to the respective benefits.

ومنها: إضافة الشر وأسبابه إلى الشيطان، وكذلك النقص، لقول فتى موسى: {وَمَا أَنْسَانِيهُ إِلَّا الشَّيْطَانُ أَنْ أَذْكُرَهُ} [الكهف: 63] . ـ

And from them: Attributing evil and its causes to the Shaytaan, as well as deficiencies, according to the statement of the adolescent who was with Moosaa:

وَمَا أَنْسَانِيهُ إِلَّا الشَّيْطَانُ أَنْ أَذْكُرَهُ

 none but the Shaytaan made me forget to remember it [18:63]

ومنها: جواز إخبار الإنسان عما يجده مما هو مقتضى الطبيعة البشرية، من نصب أو جوع أو عطش، إذا لم يكن على وجه التسخط، وكان صدقا لقوله: {لَقَدْ لَقِينَا مِنْ سَفَرِنَا هَذَا نَصَبًا} [الكهف: 62] . ـ

And from then: The permissibility of informing a person about what he will encounter due to what is inescapable in human nature of fatigue, hunger, extreme thirst – so long as it is not in a manner of discontentedness but (rather) is truthful. This is according to His statement:

لَقَدْ لَقِينَا مِن سَفَرِ‌نَا هَـٰذَا نَصَبًا

We have certainly suffered in this, our journey, [much] fatigue [18:62]

ومنها: أنه ينبغي أن يتخذ الإنسان خادما ذكيا فطنا كيِّسا ليتم له أمره الذي يريد. ـ

And from them: That one ought to select an intelligent, quick-witted, polite servant-boy in order to thereby accomplish the affairs which he intends.

ومنها: استحباب إطعام الإنسان خادمه من مأكله، وأكلهما جميعا؛ لأن ظاهر قوله: {آتِنَا غَدَاءَنَا} [الكهف: 62] أنه للجميع . ـ

And from them: The desirability of a person feeding his servant-boy out of his own food, and for them to eat together. This is due to what is apparent from His statement:

آتِنَا غَدَاءَنَا

Bring us our morning meal [18:62]

What is apparent is that this was taken together.

ومنها: أن المعونة تنزل على العبد بحسب قيامه بالأمر الشرعي، وأن ما وافق رضا الله يعان عليه ما لا يعان على غيره لقوله: {لَقَدْ لَقِينَا مِنْ سَفَرِنَا هَذَا نَصَبًا} [الكهف: 62] والإشارة إلى السفر المجاوز لمجمع البحرين، وأما الأول فلم يشتك منه مع طوله. ـ

And from them: That assistance descends upon the slave in accordance with his establishment of the divinely legislated affairs, and that that which coincides with the pleasure of Allah aids one in a way which other than that does not. This is according to His statement:

لَقَدْ لَقِينَا مِنْ سَفَرِنَا هَذَا نَصَبًا

We have certainly suffered in this, our journey, [much] fatigue [18:62]

And this is in reference to the part of the journey which went beyond the meeting place of the two seas. But as for the initial parts, then he did not complain about it despite its length.

ومنها: أن ذلك العبد الذي لقياه ليس نبيا، بل هو عبد صالح عالم ملْهَم؛ لأن الله ذكره بالعلم والعبودية الخاصة والأوصاف الجميلة، ولم يذكر معها أنه نبي أو رسول . ـ

And from them: That that slave who he met was not a prophet; rather he was a righteous slave who was knowledgeable and inspired. This is because Allah mentioned him with knowledge and with servitude specifically, as well as with other beautiful characteristics, but He did not mention with that that he was a prophet or a messenger.

وأما قوله في آخر القصة: {وَمَا فَعَلْتُهُ عَنْ أَمْرِي} [الكهف: 82] فإنه لا يدل على أنه نبي، وإنما يدل على الإلهام والتحديث، وذلك يكون لغير الأنبياء، قال تعالى: {وَأَوْحَى رَبُّكَ إِلَى النَّحْلِ} [النحل: 68] ، {وَأَوْحَيْنَا إِلَى أُمِّ مُوسَى} [القصص: 7] . ـ

And as for His statement towards the close of the story:

وَمَا فَعَلْتُهُ عَنْ أَمْرِي

And I did it not of my own accord [18:82]

then this does not prove that he is a prophet; it only proves the presence of inspired intuition and inspiration, and that may occur for non-prophets. Allah said:

وَأَوْحَى رَبُّكَ إِلَى النَّحْلِ

And your Lord inspired to the bee… [16:68]

وَأَوْحَيْنَا إِلَىٰ أُمِّ مُوسَىٰ

And We inspired to the mother of Moosaa… [28:7]

ومنها: أن العلم الذي يعلمه الله للعبد نوعان: . ـ

And from them: That the knowledge which Allah teaches to a slave is one of two types:

 علم مكتسب، يدركه العبد بطلبه وجدّه، وعلم إلهي لدنِّي، يهبه الله لمن يمن عليه من عباده، لقوله: {وَعَلَّمْنَاهُ مِنْ لَدُنَّا عِلْمًا} [الكهف: 65] فالخضر أعطي من هذا النوع الحظ الأوفر . ـ

1) Acquired knowledge which the slave apprehends through his seeking it and his diligence, and 2) divinely imparted knowledge – Allah grants it to whomever he blesses with it from among His slaves. This is according to His statement:

وَعَلَّمْنَاهُ مِنْ لَدُنَّا عِلْمًا

and We had taught him from Us a knowledge [18:65]

So al-Khadr was given a great portion of this (second) category of knowledge.

ومنها التأدب مع المعلم والتلطف في خطابه لقول موسى: {هَلْ أَتَّبِعُكَ عَلَى أَنْ تُعَلِّمَنِي مِمَّا عُلِّمْتَ رُشْدًا} [الكهف: 66] فأخرج الكلام بصورة الملاطفة والمشاورة، وأنك هل تأذن لي أم لا؟ وإظهار حاجته إلى المعلم، وأنه يتعلم منه ومشتاق إلى ما عنده، بخلاف حال أهل الكبر والجفاء الذين لا يظهرون حاجتهم إلى علم المعلم، فلا أنفع للمتعلم من إظهار الحاجة إلى علم المعلم وشكره على تعليمه . ـ

And from them: Courtesy towards one’s teacher and kindness is addressing him according to the statement of Moosaa:

هَلْ أَتَّبِعُكَ عَلَى أَنْ تُعَلِّمَنِي مِمَّا عُلِّمْتَ رُشْدًا

May I follow you on [the condition] that you teach me from what you have been taught of sound judgement? [18:66]

For he brought forth speech which was in the form of courtesy and mutual consultation – will you permit me this or no? And he displayed his need for the teacher, and that he would learn from him and he was desirous of what he had with him (of knowledge). This was in contrast to the condition of the people of pride and disinterest who do not publicize their need of knowledge to the teacher, for there is nothing more beneficial for the student than displaying his need of the teacher’s knowledge and expressing gratitude to him for his teaching.

ومنها: تواضع الفاضل للتعلم ممن هو دونه، فإن موسى بلا ريب أفضل من الخضر . ـ

And from them: Virtuous humility in learning from from one who is below you, for there is no doubt that Moosaa was better than al-Khadr.

ومنها: تعلم العالم الفاضل للعلم الذي لم يتمهر فيه ممن مهر فيه، وإن كان دونه في العلم درجات؛ فإن موسى من أكابر أولي العزم من الرسل، الذين منحهم الله، وأعطاهم من العلوم ما لم يعط سواهم، ولكن في هذا العلم الخاص كان عند الخضر ما ليس عنده، فلهذا اشتد حرصه على التعلم منه. ـ

And from them: The virtuous knowledgeable person studying a science in which he does not hold expertise from someone who is skilled in it, even if that one is below him in terms of levels of (overall) knowledge. For indeed Moosaa is one of the most senior of the Uloo’l-‘Azm (people of determination) from the messengers – those whom Allah has praised and given knowledge to them which He did not give to others. However, this particular body of knowledge which al-Khadr had was something which Moosaa himself did not possess, so for this reason his yearning to learn from him was intensified.

ومنها: أنه يتعين إضافة العلم وغيره من الفضائل إلى فضل الله ورحمته، والاعتراف بذلك، وشكر الله عليه لقوله: {تُعَلِّمَنِي مِمَّا عُلِّمْتَ رُشْدًا} [الكهف: 66] . ـ

And from them: That one should attribute knowledge as well as other virtuous things to the bounty of Allah and His mercy, and to have recognition of that, and to express gratitude to Allah for that, according to His statement:

تُعَلِّمَنِي مِمَّا عُلِّمْتَ رُشْدًا

that you teach me from what you have been taught of sound judgement [18:66]

ومنها: أن العلم النافع هو العلم المرشد إلى الخير، وكل علم فيه رشد وهداية لطريق الخير، وتحذير عن طريق الشر، أو وسيلة إلى ذلك، فإنه من العلم النافع، وما سوى ذلك فإما أن يكون ضارا، أو ليس فيه فائدة لقوله: {أَنْ تُعَلِّمَنِي مِمَّا عُلِّمْتَ رُشْدًا} [الكهف: 66] . ـ

And from them: That beneficial knowledge is knowledge which guides unto goodness, and all knowledge in which there is sound judgement and guidance to the path of goodness and cautioning against the path of evil or whatever is conducive to that – indeed these are from beneficial knowledge. And whatever is other than that, then it is either harmful or it does not contain benefit according to His statement:

تُعَلِّمَنِي مِمَّا عُلِّمْتَ رُشْدًا

that you teach me from what you have been taught of sound judgement [18:66]

ومنها: أن من ليس له صبر على صحبة العَالم، ولا قوة على الثبات على طريقة التعلم، فإنه قاصر ليس بأهل لتلقي العلم؛ فمن لا صبر له لا يدرك العلم، ومن استعمل الصبر ولازمه أدرك به كل أمر سعى إليه، فإن الخضر اعتذر عن موسى أنه لا يصبر على علمه الخاص. ـ

And from them: That the person who does not have patience in accompanying the knowledgeable one nor does he have the capacity to be consistent upon the path of learning, then indeed he is deficient and does not have the qualities of attaining knowledge. For whoever does not have patience will not reach knowledge, but whoever employs patience and adheres to it, he will thereby reach every affair (as if) running towards it. For indeed al-Khadr was excusing himself from Moosaa since Moosaa would not be able to exercise patience with his particular branch of knowledge.

ومنها: أن مما يعين على الصبر على الأشياء إحاطة العبد بها علما، وبمنافعها وثمراتها ونتائجها، فمن لا يدري هذه الأمور يصعب عليه الصبر لقوله: {وَكَيْفَ تَصْبِرُ عَلَى مَا لَمْ تُحِطْ بِهِ خُبْرًا} [الكهف: 68] . ـ

And from them: That from the things which assist one in having patience with something is the slave comprehending in it terms of knowledge as well as its beneficial matters, its fruits and and its outcomes. So whoever does not know these issues, then patience with the matter is made difficult for him according to His statement:

وَكَيْفَ تَصْبِرُ عَلَى مَا لَمْ تُحِطْ بِهِ خُبْرًا

And how can you have patience about a thing which you know not? [18:68]

ومنها: الأمر بالتأنِّي والتثبت وعدم المبادرة على الحكم على الأشياء حتى يعرف ما يراد منه، وما هو المقصود. ـ

And from them: The command to exercise prudence and trying to ascertain a matter and not to rush to judgement regarding something until understanding what is intended by it and what is its objective.

ومنها: مشروعية تعليق إيجاد الأمور المستقبلة على مشيئة الله لقوله: {سَتَجِدُنِي إِنْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ صَابِرًا وَلَا أَعْصِي لَكَ أَمْرًا} [الكهف: 69] وإن العزم على الشيء ليس بمنزلة فعله، فموسى عزم على الصبر، ولكن لم يفعل. ـ

And from them: The legislated permissibility of attaching the existence of future affairs to the will of Allah, according to His statement:

سَتَجِدُنِي إِنْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ صَابِرًا وَلَا أَعْصِي لَكَ أَمْرًا

If Allah wills, you will find me patient, and I will not disobey you in aught [18:69]

For having determination over something is not the same as doing it, since Moosaa had determination to have patience, however he did not do that.

ومنها: أن المعلم إذا رأى من المصلحة أن يخبر المتعلم أن يترك الابتداء في السؤال عن بعض الأشياء حتى يكون المعلم هو الذي يوقفه عليها، فإن المصلحة تتبع، كما إذا كان فهمه قاصرا، أو نهاه عن التدقيق الشديد أو الأسئلة التي لا تتعلق بالموضوع . ـ

And from them: That if the teacher sees a benefit in telling the student to hold off on initiating question about certain things until the teacher brings it to his attention, then he acts according to what benefits. For example, this is appropriate if the student’s understanding is limited or if he were to forbid the student from going into excessive detail or asking questions which are unrelated to the topic at hand.

ومنها: جواز ركوب البحر إذا لم يكن في ذلك خطر. ـ

And from them: The permissibility of sailing in the ocean so long as there is no danger in that.

ومنها: أن الناسي غير مؤاخذ، لا في حق الله ولا في حق العباد، إلا إن ترتب على ذلك إتلاف مال، ففيه الضمان حتى على الناسي لقوله: {لَا تُؤَاخِذْنِي بِمَا نَسِيتُ} [الكهف: 73] . ـ

And from then: That the one who forgets should not be held accountable – neither regarding the rights of Allah nor the due rights of the slaves – except if his actions bring about the destruction of wealth, for therein is a restitution even for the one who forgets. This is according to His statement:

لَا تُؤَاخِذْنِي بِمَا نَسِيتُ

Call me not to account for what I forgot [18:73]

ومنها: أنه ينبغي للعبد أن يأخذ من أخلاق الناس ومعاملاتهم العفو منها، وما سمحت به أنفسهم، ولا ينبغي له أن يكلفهم ما لا يطيقون، أو يشق عليهم أو يرهقهم، فإن هذا داع إلى النفور، بل يأخذ المتيسر ليتيسر له الأمر. ـ

And from them: That the slave should accept from the manners and mutual interactions of the people that which is granted from them and whatever they themselves freely offer, and it is not appropriate for him to impose what they aren’t able to do on them or to make things difficult on them or unduly burden them. For this will drive them away in aversion. Rather, he should accept that which is easy on them in order to make matters easy for them.

ومنها: أن الأمور تجري على ظاهرها، وتعلق بها الأحكام الدنيوية في كل شيء، فإن موسى عليه السلام أنكر على الخضر خرق السفينة، وقتل الغلام بحسب أحكامها العامة، ولم يلتفت إلى الأصل الذي أصَّلاه، هو والخضر، أنه لا يسأله ولا يعترض عليه حتى يكون الخضر هو المبتدئ . ـ

And from them: That affairs are to be taken at face value, and worldly judgements are attached to them in every case. For Moosaa (‘alaihi al-salaam) disapproved of al-Khadr’s making the hole in the boat and his killing the boy due to the general rulings, so he didn’t heed the guideline that al-Khadr and Moosaa had agreed to that Moosaa wouldn’t ask him about these issues or oppose him until al-Khadr would initiate such discussion.

ومنها: فيه تنبيه على القاعدة المشهورة الكبيرة، وهو أنه يدفع الشر الكبير بارتكاب الشر الخفيف، ويراعى أكبر المصلحتين بتفويت أدناهما؛ فإن قتل الغلام الصغير شر، ولكن بقاءه حتى يبلغ ويفتن أبويه عن دينهما أعظم شرا، وبقاء الغلام من دون قتل وإن كان في ظاهر الحال أنه خير، فالخير ببقاء أبويه على دينهما خير من ذلك، فلذلك قتله الخضر بعدما ألهمه الله الحقيقة، فكان إلهامه الباطني بمنزلة البينات الظاهرة في حق غيره. . ـ

And from them: Herein is an announcement of a great and well-known principle, which is the repelling of a great evil by committing a lesser evil, and bringing about the greater of two beneficial matters by avoiding the lesser of them. For killing the young boy was evil, however his remaining alive until he reached maturity and would try his parents and turn them away from their deen was a greater evil. And although the boy’s remaining alive without being killed is apparently good, the good of his parents remaining upon their deen was better than that. So for that reason, al-Khadr killed him after Allah had inspired him with reality of the situation. So hidden inspiration for him takes the same status as clear outward proof for others.

ومنها: القاعدة الكبيرة الأخرى، وهي: أن عمل الإنسان في مال غيره – إذا كان على وجه المصلحة ودفع المضرة – يجوز بلا إذن، حتى ولو ترتب عليه إتلاف بعض المال، كما خرق الخضر السفينة لتعيب، فتسلم من غصب الملك الظالم، وتحت هاتين القاعدتين من الفوائد ما لا حصر له. ـ

And from them: Another greater principle, which is that it is permissible for a person to act with the wealth of another person without their permission when this is done to bring about benefit or to repel harms. This is even the case if it were to involve the destruction of some of the wealth, just as al-Khadr made a hole in the both in order to damage it and thus save it from being seized by the unjust ruler. And the benefits which come under these two principles are countless.

ومنها: أن العمل يجوز في البحر كما يجوز في البر، لقوله: {يَعْمَلُونَ فِي الْبَحْرِ} [الكهف: 79] . ـ

And from them: That working on the ocean is permissible just as it is permissible on the land, according to His statement:

يَعْمَلُونَ فِي الْبَحْرِ

…working in the sea [18:79]

ومنها: أن القتل من أكبر الذنوب. ـ

And from them: That killing is one of the gravest sins.

ومنها: أن العبد الصالح يحفظه الله في نفسه، وفي ذريته، وما يتعلق به، لقوله: {وَكَانَ أَبُوهُمَا صَالِحًا} [الكهف: 82] وأن خدمة الصالحين وعمل مصالحهم أفضل من غيرهم؛ لأنه علَّل أفعاله بالجدار بقوله: {وَكَانَ أَبُوهُمَا صَالِحًا} [الكهف: 82] . ـ

And from them: That Allah protects the righteous slave in regards to his own self and in regards to his offspring and what is connected to him, according to his statement:

وَكَانَ أَبُوهُمَا صَالِحًا

 and their father was a righteous man [18:82]

And that serving the righteous ones and working towards their benefit is more virtuous than doing that for others, because al-Khadr cited that as his reason for fixing the wall, according to his statement:

وَكَانَ أَبُوهُمَا صَالِحًا

 and their father was a righteous man [18:82]

ومنها: استعمال الأدب مع الله حتى في الألفاظ؛ فإن الخضر أضاف عيب السفينة إلى نفسه بقوله: { فَأَرَ‌دتُّ أَنْ أَعِيبَهَا } وأما الخير فأضافه إلى الله لقوله: { فَأَرَ‌ادَ رَ‌بُّكَ أَن يَبْلُغَا أَشُدَّهُمَا وَيَسْتَخْرِ‌جَا كَنزَهُمَا رَ‌حْمَةً مِّن رَّ‌بِّكَ } .  ـ

And from the benefits: The use of proper etiquette with Allah – even in one’s wordings. For al-Khadr attributed the fault in the boat to himself with his statement,

فَأَرَ‌دتُّ أَنْ أَعِيبَهَا

‘So I intended to cause defect in it’ [18:79],

but regarding good, he attributed that to Allah with his saying,

فَأَرَ‌ادَ رَ‌بُّكَ أَن يَبْلُغَا أَشُدَّهُمَا وَيَسْتَخْرِ‌جَا كَنزَهُمَا رَ‌حْمَةً مِّن رَّ‌بِّكَ

‘So your Lord intended that they reach maturity and extract their treasure, as a mercy from your Lord’ [18:82].

وقال إبراهيم: { وَإِذَا مَرِ‌ضْتُ فَهُوَ يَشْفِينِ } [ الشعراء: 80 ]. وقالت الجن: { وَأَنَّا لَا نَدْرِ‌ي أَشَرٌّ‌ أُرِ‌يدَ بِمَن فِي الْأَرْ‌ضِ أَمْ أَرَ‌ادَ بِهِمْ رَ‌بُّهُمْ رَ‌شَدًا } [ الجن: 10 ]، مع أن الكل بقضاء الله وقدره. ـ

And Ibrahim said,

وَإِذَا مَرِ‌ضْتُ فَهُوَ يَشْفِين

‘And when I am ill, it is He who cures me ‘ [26:80].

And the Jinn said,

وَأَنَّا لَا نَدْرِ‌ي أَشَرٌّ‌ أُرِ‌يدَ بِمَن فِي الْأَرْ‌ضِ أَمْ أَرَ‌ادَ بِهِمْ رَ‌بُّهُمْ رَ‌شَدًا

‘And we do not know whether evil is intended for those on earth or whether their Lord intends for them a right course.’ [72:10],

even though everything is according to the Divine Will and Predetermination of Allah.

ومنها: أنه ينبغي للعبد أن لا يفارق صاحبه في حالة من الأحوال ويترك صحبته، بل يفي له بذلك حتى لا يجد للصبر محلا، وأن موافقة الصاحب لصاحبه في غير الأمور المحذورة مدعاة وسبب لبقاء الصحبة وتأكُّدها، كما أن عدم الموافقة سبب لقطع المرافقة. ـ

And from them: That it is not appropriate for the slave to separate from his companion  and abandon his company in any circumstance; rather he should be loyal in him companionship to him until he cannot find any more patience within himself. And harmony among companions – other than what is related to evil things – is a reason and a force which calls to maintaining companionship and strengthening it, just as the absence of harmony is a reason for cutting off amiable relations.

[Tayseer al-Lateef al-Manaan pg. 360-367]
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4 thoughts on “Benefits from the story of Moosaa and al-Khadr: Imam al-Sa’di

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