“Those of determination among the messengers”: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

Imam Muhammad al-Ameen al-Shinqitee wrote the following in his tafsir:

قوله – تعالى – : فاصبر كما صبر أولوا العزم من الرسل . اختلف العلماء في المراد بأولي العزم من الرسل في هذه الآية الكريمة اختلافا كثيرا . ـ

Allah said:

فَاصْبِرْ‌ كَمَا صَبَرَ‌ أُولُو الْعَزْمِ مِنَ الرُّ‌سُلِ

So exercise sabr, (O Muhammad), as did those of determination among the messengers [46:35]

The scholars have differed greatly concerning the intended meaning of ‘those of determination’ [uloo al-‘azm] among the messengers in this noble ayah.

وأشهر الأقوال في ذلك أنهم خمسة ، وهم الذين قدمنا ذكرهم في ” الأحزاب ” و ” الشورى ” ، وهم نوح وإبراهيم وموسى وعيسى ومحمد – عليهم الصلاة والسلام – . ـ

And the most well-known position in this matter is that they are five, and they are those who were previously mentioned in surah al-Ahzab [33:7] and surah al-Shooraa [42:13], who are Nuh, Ibrahim, Moosaa, ‘Eesaa and Muhammad (‘alaihim al-salaatu wa’l-salaam).

وعلى هذا القول فالرسل الذين أمر رسول الله – صلى الله عليه وسلم – أن يصبر كما صبروا – أربعة ، فصار هو – صلى الله عليه وسلم – خامسهم . ـ

So according to this position, then the messengers which the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) was commanded to exercise sabr as they has exercised sabr were four, so he (ﷺ) became their fifth.

واعلم أن القول بأن المراد بأولي العزم جميع الرسل – عليهم الصلاة والسلام – وأن لفظة من في قوله : من الرسل بيانية يظهر أنه خلاف التحقيق ، كما دل على ذلك بعض الآيات القرآنية ، كقوله – تعالى – : فاصبر لحكم ربك ولا تكن كصاحب الحوت الآية [ 68 \ 48 ] ، فأمر الله – جل وعلا – نبيه في آية ” القلم ” هذه بالصبر ، ونهاه عن أن يكون مثل يونس ; لأنه هو صاحب الحوت ، وكقوله : ولقد عهدنا إلى آدم من قبل فنسي ولم نجد له عزما [ 20 \ 115 ] . فآية ” القلم ” ، وآية ” طه ” المذكورتان كلتاهما تدل على أن أولي العزم من الرسل الذين أمر النبي – صلى الله عليه وسلم – بأن يصبر كصبرهم ليسوا جميع الرسل . والعلم عند الله – تعالى – . ـ

And know that the position which holds that the intended meaning of ‘those of determination’ refers to all of the messengers (‘alaihim al-salaatu wa’l-salaam) and that the wording “min” [from] in His statement “min al-rusul” [from the messengers] is clear evidence of that – it becomes apparent that this is at odds with a thorough investigation of the matter, as some Qur’anic ayaat demonstrate, for example His statement:

فَاصْبِرْ‌ لِحُكْمِ رَ‌بِّكَ وَلَا تَكُن كَصَاحِبِ الْحُوتِ إِذْ نَادَىٰ وَهُوَ مَكْظُومٌ

Then be patient for the decision of your Lord, [O Muhammad], and be not like the companion of the fish when he called out while he was distressed. [68:48]

So in this ayah of surah al-Qalam, Allah commanded His prophet with this sabr and prohibited him from being like Yunus, because he was the companion of the fish. And for example His statement:

وَلَقَدْ عَهِدْنَا إِلَىٰ آدَمَ مِن قَبْلُ فَنَسِيَ وَلَمْ نَجِدْ لَهُ عَزْمًا

And We had already taken a promise from Adam before, but he forgot; and We found not in him determination. [20:115]

So the ayah of surah al-Qalam and the ayah of surah Taha mentioned here both demonstrate that the people of determination among the messengers whom the Prophet (ﷺ) was commanded to exercise sabr the likes of their sabr were not all of the messengers. And the knowledge is with Allah.

[Adhwaa’ al-Bayaan 7/242]

See also: Two Types of Determination: Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali

See also: The Difference between a Prophet and a Messenger: Imam al-Shinqitee

See also: The Rewards of Obedience, and the Different Categories of People in Respects to that: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

See also: The Distinction Between a Prophet-King and a Slave-Messenger

See also: “Those Messengers, We have given precedence to some over others”: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

See also: Belief in the Messengers in brief: Tafsir al-Sa’di

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7 thoughts on ““Those of determination among the messengers”: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

  1. Pingback: Two Types of Determination: Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali | Tulayhah

  2. Pingback: The Difference between a Prophet and a Messenger: Imam al-Shinqitee | Tulayhah

  3. Pingback: The Distinction Between a Prophet-King and a Slave-Messenger | Tulayhah

  4. Pingback: “Those messengers, We have given precedence to some over others”: Tafsir al-Shinqitee | Tulayhah

  5. Pingback: Benefits from the story of Moosaa and al-Khadr: Imam al-Sa’di | Tulayhah

  6. Pingback: Why Allah began listing the prophets with Nuh: Tafsir al-Baghawi | Tulayhah

  7. Pingback: Belief in the Messengers in brief: Tafsir al-Sa’di | Tulayhah

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