The supplications of four prophets for or against their people: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

Allah informs us in surah Ibrahim about the statement of His Khaleel Ibrahim:

فَمَن تَبِعَنِي فَإِنَّهُ مِنِّي ۖ وَمَنْ عَصَانِي فَإِنَّكَ غَفُورٌ‌ رَّ‌حِيمٌ

[Ibrahim said] “So whoever follows me – then he is of me; and whoever disobeys me – indeed, You are al-Ghafoor al-Raheem (Forgiving and Merciful).”

[al-Qur’an 14:36]

Commenting on this in his book of tafsir, Imam al-Shinqitee wrote:

بين تعالى في هذه الآية الكريمة أن نبيه إبراهيم قال : إن من تبعه فإنه منه ، وأنه رد أمر من لم يتبعه إلى مشيئة الله تعالى ، إن شاء الله غفر له ; لأنه هو الغفور الرحيم ، ـ

Allah clarified (some issues) about His prophet Ibrahim in this noble ayah – He said: Verily whoever follows him then he is from him, and that the affair of those who do not follow him is returned to the will of Allah – if Allah wills he will forgive them, because He is al-Ghafoor al-Raheem (Forgiving and Merciful).

وذكر نحو هذا عن عيسى ابن مريم في قوله : إن تعذبهم فإنهم عبادك وإن تغفر لهم فإنك أنت العزيز الحكيم [ 5 \ 118 ] ، ـ

And He mentioned the likes of that from ‘Eesaa ibn Maryam in His statement:

إِن تُعَذِّبْهُمْ فَإِنَّهُمْ عِبَادُكَ ۖ وَإِن تَغْفِرْ‌ لَهُمْ فَإِنَّكَ أَنتَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ

If You should punish them – indeed they are Your servants; but if You forgive them – indeed it is You who is the Exalted in Might, the Wise [5:118].

وذكر عن نوح وموسى التشديد في الدعاء على قومهما فقال عن نوح إنه قال : رب لا تذر على الأرض من الكافرين ديارا إلى قوله : فاجرا كفارا [ 71 \ 26 ، 27 ] ، ـ

And He mentioned severity in supplication against their respective peoples from Nuh and Moosaa. So He said about Nuh that he had said:

رَّ‌بِّ لَا تَذَرْ‌ عَلَى الْأَرْ‌ضِ مِنَ الْكَافِرِ‌ينَ دَيَّارً‌ا * إِنَّكَ إِن تَذَرْ‌هُمْ يُضِلُّوا عِبَادَكَ وَلَا يَلِدُوا إِلَّا فَاجِرً‌ا كَفَّارً‌ا

My Lord, do not leave upon the earth from among the disbelievers an inhabitant. Indeed, if You leave them, they will mislead Your servants and not beget except [every] wicked one and [confirmed] disbeliever. [71:26-27]

وقال عن موسى إنه قال : ربنا ليضلوا عن سبيلك ربنا اطمس على أموالهم واشدد على قلوبهم فلا يؤمنوا حتى يروا العذاب الأليم [ 10 \ 88 ] ـ

And He said about Moosaa that he had said:

رَ‌بَّنَا إِنَّكَ آتَيْتَ فِرْ‌عَوْنَ وَمَلَأَهُ زِينَةً وَأَمْوَالًا فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا رَ‌بَّنَا لِيُضِلُّوا عَن سَبِيلِكَ ۖ رَ‌بَّنَا اطْمِسْ عَلَىٰ أَمْوَالِهِمْ وَاشْدُدْ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِهِمْ فَلَا يُؤْمِنُوا حَتَّىٰ يَرَ‌وُا الْعَذَابَ الْأَلِيمَ

Our Lord, indeed You have given Pharaoh and his establishment splendor and wealth in the worldly life, our Lord, that they may lead [men] astray from Your way. Our Lord, obliterate their wealth and harden their hearts so that they will not believe until they see the painful punishment [10:88]

والظاهر أن نوحا وموسى عليهما وعلى نبينا الصلاة والسلام ما دعوا ذلك الدعاء على قومهما إلا بعد أن علما من الله أنهم أشقياء في علم الله لا يؤمنون أبدا ، أما نوح فقد صرح الله تعالى له بذلك في قوله :  وأوحي إلى نوح أنه لن يؤمن من قومك إلا من قد آمن [ 11 \ 36 ] ، ـ

And what is apparent is that Nuh and Moosaa – peace be upon them both and upon our prophet – did not make those supplications against their people until after they were made to know by Allah that their people would ultimately be sorrowful [i.e. the inhabitants of Jahannam] according to the knowledge of Allah and that they would never believe. As for Nuh, then Allah had made this clear to him in His statement:

وَأُوحِيَ إِلَىٰ نُوحٍ أَنَّهُ لَن يُؤْمِنَ مِن قَوْمِكَ إِلَّا مَن قَدْ آمَنَ فَلَا تَبْتَئِسْ بِمَا كَانُوا يَفْعَلُونَ

And it was revealed to Noah that, “No one will believe from your people except those who have already believed.” [11:36].

وأما موسى فقد فهم ذلك من قول قومه له : مهما تأتنا به من آية لتسحرنا بها فما نحن لك بمؤمنين [ 7 \ 132 ] ، فإنهم قالوا هذا القول بعد مشاهدة تلك الآيات العظيمة المذكورة في الأعراف وغيرها . ـ

And as for Moosaa, then He had made him understand that from his people’s statement to him:

مَهْمَا تَأْتِنَا بِهِ مِنْ آيَةٍ لِّتَسْحَرَ‌نَا بِهَا فَمَا نَحْنُ لَكَ بِمُؤْمِنِينَ

No matter what sign you bring us with which to bewitch us, we will not be believers in you. [7:132].

For verily they said this statement after witnessing these great miracles mentioned in surah al-a’raaf and elsewhere.

[Adhwaa’ al-Bayaan 2/249]

See also: The Appropriate Places for Gentleness and for Harshness: Imam al-Sa’di

See also: Two disbelieving women and two believing women: Tafsir al-Sa’di

See also: The story of the two sons of Adam: Tafsir al-Sa’di

See also: The Qur’an is a healing and mercy for the believers, but a source of loss of the wrong-doers: Imam al-Sa’di’s tafsir of 17:82-84

See also: The Respective Means of Destruction: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

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7 thoughts on “The supplications of four prophets for or against their people: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

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