Whoever believes in Allah – He will guide his heart in times of trials: Tafsir al-Qurtubi

Allah says in surah al-Taghaabun:

مَا أَصَابَ مِنْ مُصِيبَةٍ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ وَمَنْ يُؤْمِنْ بِاللَّهِ يَهْدِ قَلْبَهُ وَاللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ

No calamity strikes except by permission of Allah. And whoever believes in Allah – He will guide his heart. And Allah is Knowing of all things. [64:10]

Imam al-Qurtubi, in his work of tafsir, writes about this ayah:

قوله تعالى : ما أصاب من مصيبة إلا بإذن الله أي بإرادته وقضائه . وقال الفراء : يريد إلا بأمر الله . وقيل : إلا بعلم الله . وقيل : سبب نزولها أن الكفار قالوا : لو كان ما عليه المسلمون حقا لصانهم الله عن المصائب في الدنيا ; فبين الله تعالى أن ما أصاب من مصيبة في نفس أو مال أو قول أو فعل ، يقتضي هما أو يوجب عقابا عاجلا أو آجلا فبعلم الله وقضائه .

His statement, “No calamity strikes except by permission of Allah” – meaning by His will and decree. Al-Firaa’ said: meaning, ‘except by the command of Allah’. And it is said: ‘except by Allah’s knowledge’. And it is said: the reason for the revelation of this ayah is that the kuffaar said, ‘If they Muslims were really upon the truth, then Allah would safeguard them from calamities this dunya‘, so Allah clarified that whatever calamity occurs – whether corporeally or financially, in speech or in deed, whether it is a cause of grief or something which was necessary of punishment in this life or the hereafter – then it is according to the knowledge of Allah and His decree.

قوله تعالى : ومن يؤمن بالله أي يصدق ويعلم أنه لا يصيبه مصيبة إلا بإذن الله .

His statement, “And whoever believes in Allah” – meaning, he affirms and knows that he is not afflicted with a calamity except by the permission of Allah.

” يهد قلبه ” للصبر والرضا . وقيل : يثبته على الإيمان . وقال أبو عثمان الجيزي : من صح إيمانه يهد الله قلبه لاتباع السنة . وقيل : ومن يؤمن بالله يهد قلبه عند المصيبة فيقول : إنا لله وإنا إليه راجعون ; قاله ابن جبير . وقال ابن عباس : هو أن يجعل الله في قلبه اليقين ليعلم أن ما أصابه لم يكن ليخطئه ، وأن ما أخطأه لم يكن ليصيبه . وقال الكلبي : هو إذا ابتلي صبر ، وإذا أنعم عليه شكر ، وإذا ظلم غفر . وقيل : يهد قلبه إلى نيل الثواب في الجنة . وقراءة العامة ” يهد ” بفتح الياء وكسر الدال ; لذكر اسم الله أولا . وقرأ السلمي وقتادة ” يهد قلبه ” بضم الياء وفتح الدال على الفعل المجهول ورفع الباء ; لأنه اسم فعل لم يسم فاعله . وقرأ طلحة بن مصرف والأعرج ” نهد ” بنون على التعظيم ” قلبه ” بالنصب . وقرأ عكرمة ” يهدأ قلبه ” بهمزة ساكنة ورفع الباء ، أي يسكن ويطمئن . وقرأ مثله مالك بن دينار ، إلا أنه لين الهمزة .

He will guide his heart” to sabr and contentment. And it is said: he is fortified in eemaan. And Abu ‘Uthman al-Jeezi said, “Whoever’s eemaan is true, Allah will guide his heart to following the sunnah.” And it is said, “And whoever believes in Allah, He will guide his heart when there is a calamity so that he would say, ‘Inna lillaah wa inna ilaihi raaji’oon (To Allah do we belong and to Him we are returning).'” This was said by Ibn Jubayr. And ibn ‘Abbaas said, “He is the one whom Allah places yaqeen in his heart so that he knows that what afflicted him could not have missed him, and what missed him could not have afflicted him.” And al-Kalbi said, “He is the who when he is tested he exercises sabr, and when he is blessed he exercises shukr, and when he is wronged he forgives.” And it is said, “He guides his heart to the attainment of reward in Jannah.” [What comes next is a discussion of the implications of the readings in the various qiraa’aat (recitation styles), which has been omitted from the English translation due to its dependency on some level of Arabic understanding.]

والله بكل شيء عليم لا يخفى عليه تسليم من انقاد وسلم لأمره ، ولا كراهة من كرهه .

And Allah is Knowing of all things” – submission and acceptance of His command (i.e. decree) is not concealed to Him, nor is its hatred.

[Jaami’ al-Ahkam al-Qur’an 18/129-130]

Ibn Kathir, in his famous tafsir, mentions many of the same or similar narrations, and then mentions the following two ahaadeeth of relevance:

 وفي الحديث المتفق عليه : ” عجبا للمؤمن ، لا يقضي الله له قضاء إلا كان خيرا له ، إن أصابته ضراء صبر فكان خيرا له ، وإن أصابته سراء شكر فكان خيرا له ، وليس ذلك لأحد إلا للمؤمن

And in the hadith collected by al-Bukhari and Muslim, “How amazing is the case of a mu’min; Allah does not ordain a decree for him except that it is good for him. If he is touched with harm, then he exercises sabr and that is good for him, and if he is touched with blessings, then he exercises shukr and that is good for him. And that is not that case for anyone except for the mu’min.”

 وقال أحمد : حدثنا حسن ، حدثنا ابن لهيعة ، حدثنا الحارث بن يزيد ، عن علي بن رباح ; أنه سمع جنادة بن أبي أمية يقول : سمعت عبادة بن الصامت يقول : إن رجلا أتى رسول الله – صلى الله عليه وسلم – فقال : يا رسول الله ، أي العمل أفضل ؟ قال : ” إيمان بالله ، وتصديق به ، وجهاد في سبيله ” . قال : أريد أهون من هذا يا رسول الله . قال : ” لا تتهم الله في شيء ، قضى لك به ” . لم يخرجوه

And Ahmad [ibn Hanbal] recorded that ‘Ubaadah ibn al-Saamit said: a man came to the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) and said, “O Messenger of Allah! What is the most virtuous deed?” He said, “Eemaan in Allah, and tasdeeq of it (i.e. affirming it with one’s words and actions), and jihaad in His path.” The man said, “I want something easier than this, O Messenger of Allah.” He replied, “Do not blame Allah for anything which He has decreed for you.” And neither al-Bukhari nor Muslim recorded it.

[Tafsir ibn Kathir 8/139]

See also: No calamity occurs except that it is written in the Book of Decrees: Tafsir al-Sa’di

See also: “A Good Word is like a Good Tree”: Tafsir al-Sa’di

See also: “Indeed to Allah we belong, and to Him we will return”: Tafsir al-Sa’di

See also: Whenever I am afflicted with a calamity, I praise Allah four times

See also: You will surely be tested: Tafsir al-Shinqitee

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8 thoughts on “Whoever believes in Allah – He will guide his heart in times of trials: Tafsir al-Qurtubi

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  2. Pingback: “And whoever places their reliance upon Allah, then He is sufficient for him”: Ibn Hajr | Tulayhah

  3. Pingback: “A Good Word is like a Good Tree”: Tafsir al-Sa’di | Tulayhah

  4. Pingback: “Indeed to Allah we belong, and indeed to Him we will return”: Tafsir al-Sa’di | Tulayhah

  5. Pingback: When I am afflicted with a calamity, I praise Allah four times | Tulayhah

  6. Pingback: You will surely be tested: Tafsir al-Shinqitee | Tulayhah

  7. Pingback: The Meanings of the Word Fitnah in the Qur’an: Tafsir al-Shinqitee | Tulayhah

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