Shaytaan’s address to the disbelievers at the end of time: Tafsir al-Sa’di

In surah Ibrahim, Allah informs us of some of the affairs of the unseen and events which will occur in the future when He says:

وَقَالَ الشَّيْطَانُ لَمَّا قُضِيَ الْأَمْرُ‌ إِنَّ اللَّـهَ وَعَدَكُمْ وَعْدَ الْحَقِّ وَوَعَدتُّكُمْ فَأَخْلَفْتُكُمْ ۖ وَمَا كَانَ لِيَ عَلَيْكُم مِّن سُلْطَانٍ إِلَّا أَن دَعَوْتُكُمْ فَاسْتَجَبْتُمْ لِي ۖ فَلَا تَلُومُونِي وَلُومُوا أَنفُسَكُم ۖ مَّا أَنَا بِمُصْرِ‌خِكُمْ وَمَا أَنتُم بِمُصْرِ‌خِيَّ ۖ إِنِّي كَفَرْ‌تُ بِمَا أَشْرَ‌كْتُمُونِ مِن قَبْلُ ۗ إِنَّ الظَّالِمِينَ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ – وَأُدْخِلَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِ‌ي مِن تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ‌ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا بِإِذْنِ رَ‌بِّهِمْ ۖ تَحِيَّتُهُمْ فِيهَا سَلَامٌ

And the Shaytaan will say when the matter has been concluded, “Indeed, Allah had promised you the promise of truth. And I promised you, and I betrayed you. But I had no authority over you except that I invited you, and you responded to me. So do not blame me; but blame yourselves. I cannot be called to your aid, nor can you be called to my aid. Indeed, I deny your association of me [with Allah] before. Indeed, for the wrongdoers is a painful punishment.” And those who believed and did righteous deeds will be admitted to gardens beneath which rivers flow, abiding eternally therein by permission of their Lord; and their greeting therein will be, “Peace!” [14:22-23]

Imam ‘Abdur-Rahman bin Naasir al-Sa’di, in his book of tafsir, wrote the following explanation of these ayaat:

أي‏:‏ ‏{‏وَقَالَ الشَّيْطَانُ‏}‏ الذي هو سبب لكل شر يقع ووقع في العالم، مخاطبا لأهل النار ومتبرئا منهم ‏{‏لَمَّا قُضِيَ الْأَمْرُ‏}‏ ودخل أهل الجنة الجنة وأهل النار النار‏.‏ ‏{‏إِنَّ اللَّهَ وَعَدَكُمْ وَعْدَ الْحَقِّ‏}‏ على ألسنة رسله فلم تطيعوه، فلو أطعتموه لأدركتم الفوز العظيم، ‏{‏وَوَعَدْتُكُمْ‏}‏ الخير ‏{‏فَأَخْلَفْتُكُمْ‏}‏ أي‏:‏ لم يحصل ولن يحصل لكم ما منيتكم به من الأماني الباطلة‏.‏

Meaning “And the Shaytaan will say” – and he is the cause of every evil which occurs and which has occurred in the world – addressing the people of the fire and disassociating himself from them “when the matter has been concluded” and the people of al-Jannah have entered al-Jannah and the people of the fire have entered the fire. ““Indeed, Allah had promised you the promise of truth” on the tongues of His messengers and you did not obey it, for if you had obeyed it then you would have achieved a great achievement. “And I promised you” good “and I betrayed you” – meaning: you did not obtain – and you never will obtain – what you intended to achieve from these futile hopes.

‏{‏وَمَا كَانَ لِي عَلَيْكُمْ مِنْ سُلْطَانٍ‏}‏ أي‏:‏ من حجة على تأييد قولي، ‏{‏إِلَّا أَنْ دَعَوْتُكُمْ فَاسْتَجَبْتُمْ لِي‏}‏ أي‏:‏ هذا نهاية ما عندي أني دعوتكم إلى مرادي وزينته لكم، فاستجبتم لي اتباعا لأهوائكم وشهواتكم، فإذا كانت الحال بهذه الصورة ‏{‏فَلَا تَلُومُونِي وَلُومُوا أَنْفُسَكُمْ‏}‏ فأنتم السبب وعليكم المدار في موجب العقاب، ‏{‏مَا أَنَا بِمُصْرِخِكُمْ‏}‏ أي‏:‏ بمغيثكم من الشدة التي أنتم بها ‏{‏وَمَا أَنْتُمْ بِمُصْرِخِيَّ‏}‏ كل له قسط من العذاب‏.‏

But I had no authority over you” – meaning: of authoritative proof to support my statement [i.e. my promise] – “except that I invited you, and you responded to me” – meaning: this is the full extent of what I have; I invited you to my destruction and I beautified it for you, so you responded to me in obedience to your desires and wishes. So when that is the case such as in this instance, “Then do not blame me; but blame yourselves” for you brought this upon yourselves, this incumbent punishment which is encircling you. “I cannot be called to your aid” – meaning: I will be absent from the severity which you will incur, “nor can you be called to my aid” each will have his own appropriate and just amount of punishment.

‏{‏إِنِّي كَفَرْتُ بِمَا أَشْرَكْتُمُونِ مِنْ قَبْلُ‏}‏ أي‏:‏ تبرأت من جعلكم لي شريكا مع الله فلست شريكا لله ولا تجب طاعتي، ‏{‏إِنَّ الظَّالِمِينَ‏}‏ لأنفسهم بطاعة الشيطان ‏{‏لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ‏}‏ خالدين فيه أبدا‏.‏

Indeed, I deny your association of me [with Allah] before” – meaning: I disassociate (myself) from those who have made me a partner with Allah, for I am not a partner with Allah, nor is obedience to me required of you. “Indeed, for the wrongdoers” – those who wrong themselves by obeying the shaytaan – “is a painful punishment” in which they will remain forever.

وهذا من لطف الله بعباده ،أن حذرهم من طاعة الشيطان وأخبر بمداخله التي يدخل منها على الإنسان ومقاصده فيه، وأنه يقصد أن يدخله النيران، وهنا بين لنا أنه إذا دخل النار وحزبه أنه يتبرأ منهم هذه البراءة، ويكفر بشركهم ‏{‏ولا ينبئك مثل خبير‏}‏

And this is from the kindness of Allah to His slaves, that He warns them against obedience to the shaytaan and informs them about the interference which he brings upon mankind and his objectives in that, and that he intends to enter them into them fire. And here he clarifies for us that when he and his group enter the fire, that he will disassociate himself from them with this disassociation, and with deny their shirk of him. “And none can inform you like the One Who is Aware.” [35:14]

واعلم أن الله ذكر في هذه الآية أنه ليس له سلطان، وقال في آية أخرى ‏{‏إنما سلطانه على الذين يتولونه والذين هم به مشركون‏}‏ فالسلطان الذي نفاه عنه هو سلطان الحجة والدليل، فليس له حجة أصلا على ما يدعو إليه، وإنما نهاية ذلك أن يقيم لهم من الشبه والتزيينات ما به يتجرؤون على المعاصي‏.‏

And know that Allah mentioned in this ayah that [the shaytaan] has no authority. And He said in another ayah, “His authority is only over those who take him as an ally and those who through him associate others with Allah.” [16:100] So the authority which he denies for himself is the authority of authoritative proofs and evidences, so he has no  authoritative proof as a foundation from which he bases his call; the extent of it all is that he establishes the likenesses and appealing appearances for them which induces them to disobedience.

وأما السلطان الذي أثبته فهو التسلط بالإغراء على المعاصي لأوليائه يُؤزّهم إلى المعاصي أزّا، وهم الذين سلطوه على أنفسهم بموالاته والالتحاق بحزبه، ولهذا ليس له سلطان على الذين آمنوا وعلى ربهم يتوكلون‏.‏

 As for the authority which has affirmed having, then that is influence by misleading them towards disobedience by his allies whispering to them the whispers of disobedience, and they are those who mislead themselves by their alliance to him and joining his party. And there is none of this authority for him over those who believe or over those to put their tawakkal [trust,reliance] in their Lord.

ولما ذكر عقاب الظالمين ذكر ثواب الطائعين فقال‏:‏ ‏{‏وَأُدْخِلَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ‏}‏ أي‏:‏ قاموا بالدين، قولا، وعملا، واعتقادا ‏{‏جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِنْ تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ‏}‏ فيها من اللذات والشهوات ما لا عين رأت، ولا أذن سمعت، ولا خطر على قلب بشر، ‏{‏خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا بِإِذْنِ رَبِّهِمْ‏}‏ أي‏:‏ لا بحولهم وقوتهم بل بحول الله وقوته ‏{‏تَحِيَّتُهُمْ فِيهَا سَلَامٌ‏}‏ أي‏:‏ يحيي بعضهم بعضا بالسلام والتحية والكلام الطيب‏.‏

And after He mentioned the punishment of the wrong-doers, He mentioned the reward of the obedience ones when He said, “And those who believed and did righteous deeds” – meaning: they were steadfast on the religion, in their speech and their actions and their beliefs, “will be admitted to gardens beneath which rivers flow” in which there are the pleasures and desires which no eye has seen, no ear has heard, nor has the human heart conceived. “Abiding eternally therein by permission of their Lord” – meaning: not by their own might or power, but rather by the might and power of Allah. “And their greeting therein will be, ‘Peace!’” – meaning: they will greet one another with salaam (peace) and the greeting and a good word.

[Taysir al-Kareem al-Rahman pg. 491-492]

See also: Ibn al-Qayyim on the Wisdom and Benefits of the Creation of the Shayaateen

See also: Iblees’ Promise to Misguide Mankind: Tafsir al-Baghawi

See also: A Discussion of the People of Jannah: Tafsir al-Qurtubi & Tafsir al-Sa’di

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7 thoughts on “Shaytaan’s address to the disbelievers at the end of time: Tafsir al-Sa’di

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