The Mushirkoon invite to the fire, but Allah invites to Paradise and forgiveness

Allah commands the believers in surah al-Baqarah:

وَلَا تَنكِحُوا الْمُشْرِ‌كَاتِ حَتَّىٰ يُؤْمِنَّ ۚ وَلَأَمَةٌ مُّؤْمِنَةٌ خَيْرٌ‌ مِّن مُّشْرِ‌كَةٍ وَلَوْ أَعْجَبَتْكُمْ ۗ وَلَا تُنكِحُوا الْمُشْرِ‌كِينَ حَتَّىٰ يُؤْمِنُوا ۚ وَلَعَبْدٌ مُّؤْمِنٌ خَيْرٌ‌ مِّن مُّشْرِ‌كٍ وَلَوْ أَعْجَبَكُمْ ۗ أُولَـٰئِكَ يَدْعُونَ إِلَى النَّارِ‌ ۖ وَاللَّـهُ يَدْعُو إِلَى الْجَنَّةِ وَالْمَغْفِرَ‌ةِ بِإِذْنِهِ ۖ وَيُبَيِّنُ آيَاتِهِ لِلنَّاسِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَذَكَّرُ‌ونَ

And do not marry mushrikaat women until they believe. And a believing slave woman is better than a mushrikah, even though she might please you. And do not marry mushrik men [to your women] until they believe. And a believing slave is better than a mushrik , even though he might please you. They invite to the Fire, but Allah invites to Paradise and to forgiveness, by His permission. And He makes His verses clear to the people in order that they may remember. [2:221]

Imam al-Sa’di, in his tafsir, writes about this ayah:

أي‏:‏ ‏{‏وَلَا تَنْكِحُوا‏}‏ النساء ‏{‏الْمُشْرِكَاتِ‏}‏ ما دمن على شركهن ‏{‏حَتَّى يُؤْمِنَّ‏}‏ لأن المؤمنة ولو بلغت من الدمامة ما بلغت خير من المشركة‏,‏ ولو بلغت من الحسن ما بلغت‏,‏ وهذه عامة في جميع النساء المشركات، وخصصتها آية المائدة‏,‏ في إباحة نساء أهل الكتاب كما قال تعالى‏:‏ ‏{‏وَالْمُحْصَنَاتُ مِنَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ‏}‏

And do not marrymushrikaat [disbelievers]” women who are persisting upon their shirkuntil they believe” because the female believer, even if she if is much uglier, is better than the mushrikah, even if she is much more beautiful. And this applies generally to all disbelieving women, and is stipulated by the ayah in surah al-Maa’idah, which gives the permission to marry the women of the People of the Book as Allah said, “and chaste women from among those who were given the Scripture”. [5:5]

‏{‏وَلَا تُنْكِحُوا الْمُشْرِكِينَ حَتَّى يُؤْمِنُوا‏}‏ وهذا عام لا تخصيص فيه‏.‏

And do not marry the disbelieving men until they believe” and this is general and there is no stipulation for it.

ثم ذكر تعالى‏,‏ الحكمة في تحريم نكاح المسلم أو المسلمة‏,‏ لمن خالفهما في الدين فقال‏:‏ ‏{‏أُولَئِكَ يَدْعُونَ إِلَى النَّارِ‏}‏ أي‏:‏ في أقوالهم أو أفعالهم وأحوالهم‏,‏ فمخالطتهم على خطر منهم‏,‏ والخطر ليس من الأخطار الدنيوية‏,‏ إنما هو الشقاء الأبدي‏.‏

Then Allah mentions the wisdom in the prohibition of marrying Muslim men or women to those who would oppose them in the deen, so He said, “those invite to the Fire” – meaning, in their words and their deeds and their very conditions, so mixing with them is a great risk to you, and the risk is not merely a danger in the dunya, rather it is an everlasting sorrow.

ويستفاد من تعليل الآية‏,‏ النهي عن مخالطة كل مشرك ومبتدع‏,‏ لأنه إذا لم يجز التزوج مع أن فيه مصالح كثيرة فالخلطة المجردة من باب أولى‏,‏ و خصوصًا‏,‏ الخلطة التي فيها ارتفاع المشرك ونحوه على المسلم‏,‏ كالخدمة ونحوها‏.‏

And the benefit from explanation of the ayah is the prohibition of mixing with every mushrik and innovator, because if it is not allowed to marry even while there are many benefits in that, then open mixing is first door [i.e. to be closed so that one thing does not lead to another], and specifically, mixing in which a mushrik or the likes of him is given authority over a Muslim, such as a service role, etc.

وفي قوله‏:‏ ‏{‏وَلَا تُنْكِحُوا الْمُشْرِكِينَ‏}‏ دليل على اعتبار الولي ‏[‏في النكاح‏]‏‏.‏

And in His statement, “And do not marry the mushrik men” there is proof of the the discretionary role of a wali for marriage.

‏{‏وَاللَّهُ يَدْعُو إِلَى الْجَنَّةِ وَالْمَغْفِرَةِ‏}‏ أي‏:‏ يدعو عباده لتحصيل الجنة والمغفرة‏,‏ التي من آثارها‏,‏ دفع العقوبات وذلك بالدعوة إلى أسبابها من الأعمال الصالحة‏,‏ والتوبة النصوح‏,‏ والعلم النافع‏,‏ والعمل الصالح‏.‏

And Allah calls you to Paradise and forgiveness” – meaning: He calls His slaves to the attainment of Paradise and forgiveness, and the effects of which include repelling punishment, and that is by calling them to righteous good deeds, which are causes for repelling punishment; and sincere repentance; and beneficial knowledge; and righteous good deeds.

‏{‏وَيُبَيِّنُ آيَاتِهِ‏}‏ أي‏:‏ أحكامه وحكمها ‏{‏لِلنَّاسِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَذَكَّرُونَ‏}‏ فيوجب لهم ذلك الت

ذكر لما نسوه‏,‏ وعلم ما جهلوه‏,‏ والامتثال لما ضيعوه‏.‏

And He makes His verses clear” – meaning his judgements and their wisdom “to the people in order that they might remember” for it is obligatory for them that they remember so that they don’t forget, and to know so that they aren’t ignorant, and to obey so that they don’t perish.

[Taysir al-Kareem al-Rahman pg. 99]

To read al-Sa’di’s tafsir of the preceding ayah [2:220], see here:

Notes on Allah’s Might and Wisdom: Tafsir al-Sa’di

See also: The sad story of ‘Imran ibn Hittaan

See also: Two disbelieving women and two believing women: Tafsir al-Sa’di

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4 thoughts on “The Mushirkoon invite to the fire, but Allah invites to Paradise and forgiveness

  1. Pingback: Notes on Allah’s Might and Wisdom: Tafsir al-Sa’di | Tulayhah

  2. Pingback: Qualities of the Successful Believers – Part 4/7: Tafsir al-Shinqitee | Tulayhah

  3. Pingback: Marriage in the Qur’an pt.1 – Conditions for Marriage: Imam al-Sa’di | Tulayhah

  4. Pingback: The sad story of ‘Imran ibn Hittaan | Tulayhah

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