The Orator of the Anbiya: Tafsir al-Sa’di

Allah informs us in surah al-‘Aaraaf about His Prophet Shu’aib when He says:

وَإِلَىٰ مَدْيَنَ أَخَاهُمْ شُعَيْبًا ۗ قَالَ يَا قَوْمِ اعْبُدُوا اللَّـهَ مَا لَكُم مِّنْ إِلَـٰهٍ غَيْرُ‌هُ ۖ قَدْ جَاءَتْكُم بَيِّنَةٌ مِّن رَّ‌بِّكُمْ ۖ فَأَوْفُوا الْكَيْلَ وَالْمِيزَانَ وَلَا تَبْخَسُوا النَّاسَ أَشْيَاءَهُمْ وَلَا تُفْسِدُوا فِي الْأَرْ‌ضِ بَعْدَ إِصْلَاحِهَا ۚ ذَٰلِكُمْ خَيْرٌ‌ لَّكُمْ إِن كُنتُم مُّؤْمِنِينَ  وَلَا تَقْعُدُوا بِكُلِّ صِرَ‌اطٍ تُوعِدُونَ وَتَصُدُّونَ عَن سَبِيلِ اللَّـهِ مَنْ آمَنَ بِهِ وَتَبْغُونَهَا عِوَجًا ۚ وَاذْكُرُ‌وا إِذْ كُنتُمْ قَلِيلًا فَكَثَّرَ‌كُمْ ۖ وَانظُرُ‌وا كَيْفَ كَانَ عَاقِبَةُ الْمُفْسِدِينَ  وَإِن كَانَ طَائِفَةٌ مِّنكُمْ آمَنُوا بِالَّذِي أُرْ‌سِلْتُ بِهِ وَطَائِفَةٌ لَّمْ يُؤْمِنُوا فَاصْبِرُ‌وا حَتَّىٰ يَحْكُمَ اللَّـهُ بَيْنَنَا ۚ وَهُوَ خَيْرُ‌ الْحَاكِمِينَ

And to Madyan [Allah sent] their brother Shu’aib. He said, “O my people, worship Allah; you have no deity other than Him. There has come to you clear evidence from your Lord. So fulfill the measure and weight and do not deprive people of their due and do not cause corruption upon the earth after its reformation. That is better for you, if you should be believers.  And do not sit on every path, threatening and averting from the way of Allah those who believe in Him, seeking deviation. And remember when you were few and He increased you. And see how was the end of the corrupters. And if there should be a group among you who has believed in that with which I have been sent and a group that has not believed, then be patient until Allah judges between us. And He is the best of judges.” [7:85-87]

Imam al-Sa’di writes about this in his tafsir:

أي‏:‏ ‏(‏و)‏ أرسلنا إلى القبيلة المعروفة بمدين ‏(‏أَخَاهُمْ)‏ في النسب ‏(‏شُعَيْبًا‏)‏ يدعوهم إلى عبادة اللّه وحده لا شريك له، ويأمرهم بإيفاء المكيال والميزان، وأن لا يبخسوا الناس أشياءهم، وأن لا يعثوا في الأرض مفسدين، بالإكثار من عمل المعاصي، ولهذا قال‏:‏ (‏وَلَا تُفْسِدُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ بَعْدَ إِصْلَاحِهَا ذَلِكُمْ خَيْرٌ لَكُمْ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ مُؤْمِنِينَ‏)‏ فإن ترك المعاصي امتثالا لأمر اللّه وتقربا إليه خير، وأنفع للعبد من ارتكابها الموجب لسخط الجبار، وعذاب النار‏.‏

“And” we sent to the tribe known as Madyantheir brother” in relation “Shu’aib” calling to the worship of Allah, exclusively with no partners, and commands them to be truthful in the balancing of their measures and weights, and to not underpay the people, and to not go about causing wickedness and corruption in the earth by increasing in acts of disobedience. And this is what He said, “and do not cause corruption upon the earth after its reformation” for if you abandon sinful disobedience for the command of Allah that is closer to good, and and more beneficial for the slave than those things whose perpetration necessitates the wrath of al-Jabbaar, and the punishment of the fire.

‏(‏وَلَا تَقْعُدُوا‏) للناس (‏بِكُلِّ صِرَاطٍ)‏ أي‏:‏ طريق من الطرق التي يكثر سلوكها، تحذرون الناس منها ‏(‏و)‏ ‏(‏تُوعَدُونَ)‏ من سلكها (‏وَتَصُدُّونَ عَنْ سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ‏)‏ من أراد الاهتداء به (‏وَتَبْغُونَهَا عِوَجًا)‏ أي‏:‏ تبغون سبيل اللّه تكون معوجة، وتميلونها اتباعا لأهوائكم، وقد كان الواجب عليكم وعلى غيركم الاحترام والتعظيم للسبيل التي نصبها اللّه لعباده ليسلكوها إلى مرضاته ودار كرامته، ورحمهم بها أعظم رحمة، وتصدون لنصرتها والدعوة إليها والذب عنها، لا أن تكونوا أنتم قطاع طريقها، الصادين الناس عنها، فإن هذا كفر لنعمة اللّه ومحادة للّه، وجعل أقوم الطرق وأعدلها مائلة، وتشنعون على من سلكها‏.‏

And do not sit” – O people – “on every path“- meaning roads which receive much traffic, making the people wary of them. And “threatening” – from the path – “and averting from the path of Allah” those who want to be guided by it. “And seeking deviance” – meaning: seeking to make the path of Allah deviated, and compelling them to follow your desires. And it is obligatory upon you and upon others to revere and venerate the path which Allah has apportioned for His slaves to seek His pleasure and an honorable abode [in the hereafter], and He bestows a great mercy on those who do that. And those who seek to repel the aid for this path, and the call to it and the defense of it – not only those who are on a part of the road and repelling the people from it – then verily this is kufr of the blessings of Allah and of the praise of Allah, and making the straight and just path crooked, and blemishing the path.

‏(‏وَاذْكُرُوا‏)‏ نعمة اللّه عليكم (‏إِذْ كُنْتُمْ قَلِيلًا فَكَثَّرَكُمْ‏)‏ أي‏:‏ نماكم بما أنعم عليكم من الزوجات والنسل، والصحة، وأنه ما ابتلاكم بوباء أو أمراض من الأمراض المقللة لكم، ولا سلط عليكم عدوا يجتاحكم ولا فرقكم في الأرض، بل أنعم عليكم باجتماعكم، وإدرار الأرزاق وكثرة النسل‏.‏

And remember” the blessing of Allah upon you “when you were few and he increased you” – meaning: among His blessings upon you were wives and offspring, and health, and that he did not test you with plagues or sicknesses from the various kinds of diseases which would decrease you, and that He did not He did not place enemies in authority over you who would dispute with you and scatter you in the land. Rather He blessed you with unity, and with generous provision and abundant offspring.

‏(‏وَانْظُرُوا كَيْفَ كَانَ عَاقِبَةُ الْمُفْسِدِينَ‏)‏ فإنكم لا تجدون في جموعهم إلا الشتات، ولا في ربوعهم إلا الوحشة والانبتات ولم يورثوا ذكرا حسنا، بل أتبعوا في هذه الدنيا لعنة، ويوم القيامة أشد خزيا وفضيحة‏.‏

And see how was the end of the corrupters” for verily you cannot find them en masse, only as a diaspora. And in their dwellings you only find loneliness and unfulfilled hopes and the men never produce good offspring, rather there is a curse following them in this dunya, and the Day of Resurrection will be more shameful and humiliating.

‏(‏وَإِنْ كَانَ طَائِفَةٌ مِنْكُمْ آمَنُوا بِالَّذِي أُرْسِلْتُ بِهِ وَطَائِفَةٌ لَمْ يُؤْمِنُوا‏)‏ وهم الجمهور منهم‏.‏ (‏فَاصْبِرُوا حَتَّى يَحْكُمَ اللَّهُ بَيْنَنَا وَهُوَ خَيْرُ الْحَاكِمِينَ‏)‏ فينصر المحق، ويوقع العقوبة على المبطل‏.‏

And if there should be a group among you who has believed in that with which I have been sent and a group that has not believed” and they are the majority of them “then be patient until Allah judges between us. And He is the best of judges” – then He will support the truthful ones, and the punishment will be placed false ones.

Allah continues on to say:

قَالَ الْمَلَأُ الَّذِينَ اسْتَكْبَرُ‌وا مِن قَوْمِهِ لَنُخْرِ‌جَنَّكَ يَا شُعَيْبُ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مَعَكَ مِن قَرْ‌يَتِنَا أَوْ لَتَعُودُنَّ فِي مِلَّتِنَا ۚ قَالَ أَوَلَوْ كُنَّا كَارِ‌هِينَ  قَدِ افْتَرَ‌يْنَا عَلَى اللَّـهِ كَذِبًا إِنْ عُدْنَا فِي مِلَّتِكُم بَعْدَ إِذْ نَجَّانَا اللَّـهُ مِنْهَا ۚ وَمَا يَكُونُ لَنَا أَن نَّعُودَ فِيهَا إِلَّا أَن يَشَاءَ اللَّـهُ رَ‌بُّنَا ۚ وَسِعَ رَ‌بُّنَا كُلَّ شَيْءٍ عِلْمًا ۚ عَلَى اللَّـهِ تَوَكَّلْنَا ۚ رَ‌بَّنَا افْتَحْ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَ قَوْمِنَا بِالْحَقِّ وَأَنتَ خَيْرُ‌ الْفَاتِحِينَ  وَقَالَ الْمَلَأُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُ‌وا مِن قَوْمِهِ لَئِنِ اتَّبَعْتُمْ شُعَيْبًا إِنَّكُمْ إِذًا لَّخَاسِرُ‌ونَ  فَأَخَذَتْهُمُ الرَّ‌جْفَةُ فَأَصْبَحُوا فِي دَارِ‌هِمْ جَاثِمِينَ  الَّذِينَ كَذَّبُوا شُعَيْبًا كَأَن لَّمْ يَغْنَوْا فِيهَا ۚ الَّذِينَ كَذَّبُوا شُعَيْبًا كَانُوا هُمُ الْخَاسِرِ‌ينَ  فَتَوَلَّىٰ عَنْهُمْ وَقَالَ يَا قَوْمِ لَقَدْ أَبْلَغْتُكُمْ رِ‌سَالَاتِ رَ‌بِّي وَنَصَحْتُ لَكُمْ ۖ فَكَيْفَ آسَىٰ عَلَىٰ قَوْمٍ كَافِرِ‌ينَ

The eminent ones who were arrogant among his people said, “We will surely evict you, O Shu’ayb, and those who have believed with you from our city, or you must return to our religion.” He said, “Even if we were unwilling?  We would have invented against Allah a lie if we returned to your religion after Allah had saved us from it. And it is not for us to return to it except that Allah, our Lord, should will. Our Lord has encompassed all things in knowledge. Upon Allah we have put our trust. Our Lord, decide between us and our people in truth, and You are the best of those who give decision.” The eminent ones who disbelieved among his people said, “If you should follow Shu’aib, indeed, you would then be losers.”  So the earthquake seized them and they lay prostrate in their homes.  Those who denied Shu’aib – it was as though they had never resided there. Those who denied Shu’aib – it was they who were the losers.  And he turned away from them and said, “O my people, I had certainly conveyed to you the messages of my Lord and advised you, so how could I grieve for a disbelieving people?” [7:88-93]

Imam al-Sa’di continues to explain, writing:

‏ ‏(‏قَالَ الْمَلَأُ الَّذِينَ اسْتَكْبَرُوا مِنْ قَوْمِهِ)‏ وهم الأشراف والكبراء منهم الذين اتبعوا أهواءهم ولهوا بلذاتهم، فلما أتاهم الحق ورأوه غير موافق لأهوائهم الرديئة، ردوه واستكبروا عنه، فقالوا لنبيهم شعيب ومن معه من المؤمنين المستضعفين‏:‏ ‏(‏لَنُخْرِجَنَّكَ يَا شُعَيْبُ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مَعَكَ مِنْ قَرْيَتِنَا أَوْ لَتَعُودُنَّ فِي مِلَّتِنَا)‏ استعملوا قوتهم السبعية، في مقابلة الحق، ولم يراعوا دينا ولا ذمة ولا حقا، وإنما راعوا واتبعوا آهواءهم وعقولهم السفيهة التي دلتهم على هذا القول الفاسد، فقالوا‏:‏ إما أن ترجع أنت ومن معك إلى ديننا أو لنخرجنكم من قريتنا‏.‏

The eminent ones who were arrogant among his people said” – and they are the nobles and elders among them who follow their desires and whims capriciously. For when We gave them the truth and they saw that it did not agree with their own evil desires. they turned away and became prideful over it, so they said to their prophet Shu’aib and those believers who were with him and considered, “We will surely evict you, O Shu’aib, and those who have believed with you from our city, or you must return to our religion” – they used their predatory power and opposed the truth, and they did not consider their religion or giving them dhimmah or the truth. They only considered and followed their own desires and foolish reasonings which led them to this evil statement. So they said, ‘Either you return to our religion, you and those with you, of we will expel you from our city.’

فـ ‏(‏شعيب)‏ عليه الصلاة والسلام كان يدعوهم طامعا في إيمانهم، والآن لم يسلم من شرهم، حتى توعدوه إن لم يتابعهم ـ بالجلاء عن وطنه، الذي هو ومن معه أحق به منهم‏.‏

So “Shu’aib” – (‘alaihis salaatu was salaam) was calling them, hoping in their faith, and now he is not safe from their evil, until they called to him that if he does not follow them, to evacuate his homeland, to which he and those with have more right than them.

فـ (‏قَالَ‏)‏ لهم شعيب عليه الصلاة والسلام متعجبا من قولهم‏:‏ ‏(‏أَوَ لَوْ كُنَّا كَارِهِينَ‏)‏ أي‏:‏ أنتابعكم على دينكم وملتكم الباطلة، ولو كنا كارهين لها لعلمنا ببطلانها، فإنما يدعى إليها من له نوع رغبة فيها، أما من يعلن بالنهي عنها، والتشنيع على من اتبعها فكيف يدعى إليها‏؟‏

So “he said” – i.e. Shu’aib (‘alaihis salaatu was salaam) – to them, amazed at their statement- “even if we were unwilling?” – meaning: should we follow you in your false religion and way, even though we despise it since we know its falsity? For only those who had a type of desire in this offer were attracted to it, or those who proclaimed to end it and dishonor those who followed it, so who was attracted to this offer?

‏(‏قَدِ افْتَرَيْنَا عَلَى اللَّهِ كَذِبًا إِنْ عُدْنَا فِي مِلَّتِكُمْ بَعْدَ إِذْ نَجَّانَا اللَّهُ مِنْهَا‏)‏ أي‏:‏ اشهدوا علينا أننا إن عدنا إليها بعد ما نجانا اللّه منها وأنقذنا من شرها، أننا كاذبون مفترون على اللّه الكذب، فإننا نعلم أنه لا أعظم افتراء ممن جعل للّه شريكا، وهو الواحد الأحد الفرد الصمد، الذي لم يتخذ ولدا ولا صاحبة، ولا شريكا في الملك‏.‏

We would have invented against Allah a lie if we returned to your religion after Allah had saved us from it” – meaning: it would have been a witness against if we had gone back to it after Allah had saved us from that and rescued us from its evil, verily we would have been liars and inventing lies against Allah. So verily we know that there is no greater slander than to create a partner for Allah, and He is One, Singular, Unique, and al-Samad, who neither takes a progeny or consort, or any sort of partner in His dominion.

‏(‏وَمَا يَكُونُ لَنَا أَنْ نَعُودَ فِيهَا‏)‏ أي‏:‏ يمتنع على مثلنا أن نعود فيها، فإن هذا من المحال، فآيسهم عليه الصلاة والسلام من كونه يوافقهم من وجوه متعددة، من جهة أنهم كارهون لها مبغضون لما هم عليه من الشرك‏.‏ ومن جهة أنه جعل ما هم عليه كذبا، وأشهدهم أنه إن اتبعهم ومن معه فإنهم كاذبون‏.‏

And it is not for us to return to it” – meaning: we shall not return to it, for verily this is impossible. So he disappointed them (‘alaihis salaatu was salaam) and his stance was based on a number of reasons, one of which is that Shu’aib and his followers disliked it and hated what the shirk that they were upon. And another reason is that it would have made them liars, and they knew that if he and those with him were to follow them then they would be liars.

ومنها‏:‏ اعترافهم بمنة اللّه عليهم إذ أنقذهم اللّه منها‏.‏

And another reason is that Shu’aib and his followers recognized the great bounty of Allah upon them when Allah has rescued them from that.

ومنها‏:‏ أن عودهم فيها ـ بعد ما هداهم اللّه ـ من المحالات، بالنظر إلى حالتهم الراهنة، وما في قلوبهم من تعظيم اللّه تعالى والاعتراف له بالعبودية، وأنه الإله وحده الذي لا تنبغي العبادة إلا له وحده لا شريك له، وأن آلهة المشركين أبطل الباطل، وأمحل المحال‏.‏

And another reason is that to return to that, after Allah has guided them, is impossible in light of their certainty and what is in the hearts of the glorification of Allah and recognition of their servitude to Him, and that He is the One God who does not accept any worship except that which is exclusively made to him with no partners, and that the gods of the mushrikoon are the falsest of falsehoods.

وحيث إن اللّه منَّ عليهم بعقول يعرفون بها الحق والباطل، والهدى والضلال‏.‏

And Allah endowed them with minds by which they can recognize the truth and falsehood, guidance and misguidance.

وأما من حيث النظر إلى مشيئة اللّه وإرادته النافذة في خلقه، التي لا خروج لأحد عنها، ولو تواترت الأسباب وتوافقت القوى، فإنهم لا يحكمون على أنفسهم أنهم سيفعلون شيئًا أو يتركونه، ولهذا استثنى ‏(‏وَمَا يَكُونُ لَنَا أَنْ نَعُودَ فِيهَا إِلَّا أَنْ يَشَاءَ اللَّهُ رَبُّنَا‏)‏ أي‏:‏ فلا يمكننا ولا غيرنا، الخروج عن مشيئته التابعة لعلمه وحكمته، وقد ‏(‏وَسِعَ رَبُّنَا كُلَّ شَيْءٍ عِلْمًا)‏ فيعلم ما يصلح للعباد وما يدبرهم عليه‏.‏ ‏(‏عَلَى اللَّهِ تَوَكَّلْنَا‏)‏ أي‏:‏ اعتمدنا أنه سيثبتنا على الصراط المستقيم، وأن يعصمنا من جميع طرق الجحيم، فإن من توكل على اللّه، كفاه، ويسر له أمر دينه ودنياه‏.‏

Or when one looks at the will and might of Allah as displayed in His creation – of which nothing is excluded – even if one were to set up the means and acquire the power, still one would not be able to decree for himself that he will do or not do something, with the exception that “And it is not for us to return to it except that Allah, our Lord, should will” – meaning: neither we nor any one else are outside of His will, which flows from His knowledge and wisdom, and “our Lord has encompassed all things in knowledge” – He knows what is beneficial for the slaves and what is adverse for them. “Upon Allah we have put our trust” – meaning: we rely and depend upon him, verily He has made us steadfast upon the siraat al-mustaqim (straight path), and He protects us from all the paths of the hellfire. For if one puts their trust in Allah, He suffices them and He facilitates for them the affairs of their dunya and their deen.

‏(‏رَبَّنَا افْتَحْ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَ قَوْمِنَا بِالْحَقِّ‏)‏ أي‏:‏ انصر المظلوم، وصاحب الحق، على الظالم المعاند للحق ‏(‏وَأَنْتَ خَيْرُ الْفَاتِحِينَ‏)‏ وفتحه تعالى لعباده نوعان‏:‏ فتح العلم، بتبيين الحق من الباطل، والهدى من الضلال، ومن هو من المستقيمين على الصراط، ممن هو منحرف عنه‏.‏

Our Lord, decide between us and our people in truth” -meaning: support the oppressed and the companions of the truth against the unjust one who opposes the truth and You are the best of those who give decision“. And the fatḥ of Allah for His slaves is of two types: fatḥ al-‘ilm, to clarify the truth from falsehood, and guidance from misguidance, and who is steady on the path from those deviating from it.

والنوع الثاني‏:‏ فتحه بالجزاء وإيقاع العقوبة على الظالمين، والنجاة والإكرام للصالحين، فسألوا اللّه أن يفتح بينهم وبين قومهم بالحق والعدل، وأن يريهم من آياته وعبره ما يكون فاصلا بين الفريقين‏.‏

And the second type: his fatḥ of recompensing and inflicting punishment on the wrong-doers, and saving and honoring the righteous ones. So they asked Allah to give the decision between them and their people in truth and justice, and to show them His signs and that there would thereby be a clear division between the two groups.

‏(‏وَقَالَ الْمَلَأُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِنْ قَوْمِهِ‏)‏ محذرين عن اتباع شعيب، (‏لَئِنِ اتَّبَعْتُمْ شُعَيْبًا إِنَّكُمْ إِذًا لَخَاسِرُونَ‏)‏ هذا ما سولت لهم أنفسهم أن الخسارة والشقاء في اتباع الرشد والهدى، ولم يدروا أن الخسارة كل الخسارة في لزوم ما هم عليه من الضلال والإضلال، وقد علموا ذلك حين وقع بهم النكال‏.‏

The eminent ones who disbelieved among his people said” – warning those who followed Shu’aib – “If you should follow Shu’aib, you would certainly be losers” – this (argument) is what seduced themselves, that loss and misery were in following uprightness and guidance, but that never brings loss, rather every loss was inevitable in what there were following of misguidance and delusion, and they knew the truth of that when the warning came to them.

(‏فَأَخَذَتْهُمُ الرَّجْفَةُ‏)‏ أي‏:‏ الزلزلة الشديدة ‏(‏فَأَصْبَحُوا فِي دَارِهِمْ جَاثِمِينَ)‏ أي‏:‏ صرعى ميتين هامدين‏.‏

So the earthquake seized them” – meaning: a terrible earthquake – “and they lay prostrate in their homes” – meaning: lying dead and lifeless.

قال تعالى ناعيا حالهم (‏الَّذِينَ كَذَّبُوا شُعَيْبًا كَأَنْ لَمْ يَغْنَوْا فِيهَا‏)‏ أي‏:‏ كأنهم ما أقاموا في ديارهم، وكأنهم ما تمتعوا في عرصاتها، ولا تفيئوا في ظلالها، ولا غنوا في مسارح أنهارها، ولا أكلوا من ثمار أشجارها، حين فاجأهم العذاب، فنقلهم من مورد اللهو واللعب واللذات، إلى مستقر الحزن والشقاء والعقاب والدركات ولهذا قال‏:‏ ‏(‏الَّذِينَ كَذَّبُوا شُعَيْبًا كَانُوا هُمُ الْخَاسِرِينَ)‏ أي‏:‏ الخسار محصور فيهم، لأنهم خسروا دينهم وأنفسهم وأهليهم يوم القيامة، ألا ذلك هو الخسران المبين، لا من قالوا لهم‏:‏ ‏(‏لَئِنِ اتَّبَعْتُمْ شُعَيْبًا إِنَّكُمْ إِذًا لَخَاسِرُونَ)‏

Allah says as an obituary “Those who denied Shu’aib – it was as though they had never resided there” – meaning: as though they had not lived in their homes, and as though they had not enjoyed the pomp of life, or rested in the shade, or gained from the produce of the rivers, or ate from the fruits of the trees. So they were caught unaware by  the punishment, it met them while they were engrossed in whims and games and pleasures, which gave way to distress and misery and punishment and a sudden overwhelming, and this is what He said: “Those who denied Shu’ayb – it was they who were the losers” – meaning: they are encircled by loss, because they lost their religion and themselves and their families on the Day of Resurrection, and certainly that is a manifest loss. No one would say to them “If you should follow Shu’aib, indeed, you would then be losers.

فحين هلكوا تولى عنهم نبيهم شعيب عليه الصلاة والسلام (‏وَقَالَ)‏ معاتبا وموبخا ومخاطبا بعد موتهم‏:‏ ‏(‏يَا قَوْمِ لَقَدْ أَبْلَغْتُكُمْ رِسَالَاتِ رَبِّي‏)‏ أي‏:‏ أوصلتها إليكم، وبينتها حتى بلغت منكم أقصى ما يمكن أن تصل إليه، وخالطت أفئدتكم ‏(‏وَنَصَحْتُ لَكُمْ‏)‏ فلم تقبلوا نصحي، ولا انقدتم لإرشادي، بل فسقتم وطغيتم‏.‏

‏So when they were destroyed, their prophet Shu’aib (‘alaihis salaatu was salaam) turned away from them “and he said” admonishing and reproachfully, addressing them after their deaths. “O my people, I had certainly conveyed to you the messages of my Lord” – meaning: I reached you with it, and made it clear and heard until I had conveyed it to as many of you as it was possible to reach, unsettling your hearts “and I advised you” but you did not accept the advice, nor did you accept my guidance, rather you became agitated and tyrannical.

‏(‏فَكَيْفَ آسَى عَلَى قَوْمٍ كَافِرِينَ)‏ أي‏:‏ فكيف أحزن على قوم لا خير فيهم، أتاهم الخير فردوه ولم يقبلوه ولا يليق بهم إلا الشر، فهؤلاء غير حقيقين أن يحزن عليهم، بل يفرح بإهلاكهم ومحقهم‏.‏ فعياذا بك اللهم من الخزي والفضيحة، وأي‏:‏ شقاء وعقوبة أبلغ من أن يصلوا إلى حالة يتبرأ منهم أنصح الخلق لهم‏؟‏‏.‏

So how could I grieve for a disbelieving people?” – meaning: so how can I feel sad about a people who had no good in them? Good came to them and they rebutted it and did not accept it and they didn’t receive it with anything except evil. So it is not fitting to be sad about them, rather to rejoice at their destruction and due end. So we seek refuge in You O Allah from shame and humiliation, meaning: misery and punishment which afflicts the one who reaches this situation and disowns the ones who sincerely advise them to good.

[Taysir al-Kareem al-Rahman pg. 334-336]

See also: Ashaab al-Aykah and the People of Shu’aib: Tafsir ibn Kathir

See also: The story of the Town by the Sea: Tafsir al-Sa’di

See also: The story of the two sons of Adam: Tafsir al-Sa’di

See also: The story of Nuh and his son

See also: The story of Ilyaas: Tafsir al-Sa’di

See also: Two disbelieving women and two believing women: Tafsir al-Sa’di

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6 thoughts on “The Orator of the Anbiya: Tafsir al-Sa’di

  1. Pingback: The Story of the Town by the Sea: Tafsir al-Sa’di | Tulayhah

  2. Pingback: The story of the two sons of Adam: Tafsir al-Sa’di | Tulayhah

  3. Pingback: The story of Nuh and his son | Tulayhah

  4. Pingback: The story of Ilyaas: Tafsir al-Sa’di | Tulayhah

  5. Pingback: “And for that He created them…”: Tafsir al-Qurtubi | Tulayhah

  6. Pingback: Ashaab al-Aykah and the People of Shu’aib: Tafsir ibn Kathir | Tulayhah

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